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Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions and Answers

by GangBoard Admin, November 26, 2018

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Best Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions and Answers

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 Q1). Describe about Classical AI & Weak AI?

Classical AI:

– It has more concerned with deductive thought as provided with set of constraints, deduce a conclusion

Weak AI:

– It simply predicts that some features that are resembling to the human machine intelligence can be

incorporated to computer make it more useful tools in it.

 Q2). What is a production rule consist of and the which searhc method take a less memory?

Production Rule:

– It is a rule which comprises of a set of rule and a sequence of steps in it.

Search Method:

– Depth First Search is the method that would takes the less memory for any of the process to follow.

 Q3). How A* algorithm is works with search method?

A* Algorithm Search Methodology:

– A* algo’s is fully based on first search method and it provides an idea of optimization and quick choose of the path

and along-with all the characterisitics lies on it the same.

 Q4). What is Heruistic Function & How Neural Networks working in AI?

Heuristic Function:

– It is an alternatives function for ranks in search algorithms and at each branching step based on the available information

to decide which branch that needs to be follow.

Neural Networks In AI:

– In general it is an biological term, but in artificial intelligence it is an emulation of a biological neural system,

which receives the data, process the data and gives output based on the algorithm and empirical data.

 Q5). How the Strong AI & Statistical AI works?

Strong AI:

– It claims that the computer can be made to think on a level equal to humans. This is what the strong ai performs.

Statistical AI:

– It has more concerned with inductive thought as provided with set of patterns, induce with the trend.

 Q6). How to resolve a problem with the Game Playing Problem Methodology?

Game Playing Problem Methodology:

– Heuristic Approach is the best way to proceed further for game playing problem, though it will use the technique based on

intelligent guesswork. Let us say an example like chess game – Chess between human and computer as it will proceed with

brute force computation and looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.

 Q7). Simple Explanation about Alternate, Artificial, Compound and Natural Key?

Natural Key:

– It is one of the data element that is stored within a construct, and it is optimized as the primary key.

Compound & Artifical Key:

– If there is no single data element that uniquely defines the occurrences within a construct, then integrating

multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct and it is called as compound key.

– If there is no obvious key either stands alone or compound is available, then the last report is to simply create a key

by assigning a number to each record or occurrence and it is called a artificial key.

 Q8). What is an Agent and How Partial Order or Planning Involve?

Agent:

– Like, anything that preceives its environment by the sensors, and act upon an environment by effectors are called as

Agent. (e.g. Robots, Programs, Humans, HCI, HMI etc.)

Partial Order or Planning:

– Instead of searching over possible situation that involves searching over the space of possbile plans. Then the idea

can be construct as a plan piece by piece.

 Q9). On How many ways we can construct a plan and which property is considered as not a desirable property of a logical rule-based system?

Ways to Construct a Plan:

– Action, nothing but add an operator

– Secondly, add an ordering constraints between the operators

Property not desirable:

– Attachment is the one which not considered as a logical-rule based system in artificial intelligence.

 Q10). How the Generality and Top-Down Parser works?

Generality:

– It is the ease measure with which the method can be adapted to different domains of application

Top-Down Parser:

– It begins by hypothesizing a sentence and successively predicting lower level constituents until that the individual

pre-terminal symbols are written.

 Q11). How FOPL works in AI?

FOLP:

– It’s nothing but a first order predicate logic we called as shortly FOPL.

Working Methodology:

– It needs a language to express assertions about certain world

– It needs an inteference system to deductive apparatus whereby we may draw conclusions from such assertions

– It needs a semantic based on set theory

 Q12). How AI perform against Frames and Scripts?

Frames:

– They are variant of semantic networks which is one of the popular ways of presenting non-procedural knowledge in an expert system.

– A frame which is an artificial data structure is used to divide the knowledge into substructure by representing in

stereotyped-situations.

Scripts:

– It is similar with respect to frames but except the values that fill the slots must be ordered.

– Though, scripts used in natural language understanding systems to organize a knowledge base in terms of the situation that

the system should understand.

 Q13).Describe the Building Mehtodology of Bayesian Network and Bayes Model with resepect to AI?

Build Methodology of Bayesian Network:

– The Bayesian Network creation, falls under the consequence between a node and its predecessors.

– And also the node can be conditionally independent of its predecessors.

Build Methodology of Bayes Model:

– There are three terminology that required to build a Bayes Model.

– And they should be one conditional probability based and the other two unconditional probability based.

 Q14). Breif the Literal that help for top-down inductive learning methods?

The below are the few literal that currently used for inductive learning methodology:

– Predicates

– Equality & In-Equality

– Arithmetic Literals

 Q15). What is Hidden Markov Model & Signal Flow In Speech Recoginition?

HMM:

– It is ubiquitous tool for modelling time series data or to model sequence behaviour of the system.

– It can be used in almost all the current speech based systems.

– It can be stated in single discrete random variable.

Signal Flow Used:

– Acoustic signal flow is the one which can be used in the speech to identify the sequence of words.

AI Questions!

 Q16).  Which is the similar operation performed by the drop-out in neural network?

Bagging; Dropout can be seen as bagging, it each training step it creates a different

network which is trained with backpropagation. It is same as ensemble of many networks

trained with a single sample.

 Q17). How a neural networks became a universal function approximators?

Because of the Activation Functions; Yes, the activation functions are helpful in making the

functions piecewise linear which in turn helps in representing the any complex function.

 Q18). What are the possible reasons for slow learning rate in the Neural networks?

1. Low learning rate, 2. High regularization, 3. Stuck at local Minima

Low learning rate : Because of this the minima is very slow by gradient descent algorithm

High regularization : This will bound the parameter values to the very low values and

complexity is very much decreased

Stuck at local Minima : When it is stuck at local minima it requires more iterations or change in

learning rate to get out of it.

 Q19). Comment on batch Normalization?

To make the data standardized before sending it to the another layer. It reduces the

impacts of previous layers by keeping the mean and variance constant, makes the layers

independent of each other. The convergence becomes faster.

 Q20). What are the different NLP tasks deep learning can be applied?

Machine translation, Sentiment Analysis, Question and Answer system

Machine translation : Sequence to sequence models are used for this.

Sentiment Analysis : Classification techniques on text using neural networks

Question and Answer system : This is again a Seq to seq model

 Q21). What are the disadvantages of representing the words with one hot vectors?

1. No similarities are captures, 2. Very high no. of dimensions to compute

One hot vectors are very sparse vectors which are orthogonal to each other and each vector is

represented by the same number of total number of different words in corpus. So it is high

dimensional as well as no similarities are captured.

 Q22). Simple explanation of one hot representation to lower dimension conversion?

Trained Neural Network with one hidden layer gives the lookup table. First of all train a

model NN model with one hidden layer to predict the context words, after the training the actual

weight matrix that is learnt by hidden layer is user for representing the words.

 Q23). How dropout is different from regularization related?

When dropout rate is very high, regularization will be very low. It constrains adapting

network to the data to avoid overfitting.

 Q24). How BPTT varies from vanilla backpropagation?

In BPTT, in each time step, for each weight the gradients are summed together. Errors will

be calculated for each timestep. The weights are updated after the network is rolled back.

 Q25). What is the way of dealing with “Exploding Gradient” problem in RNNs?

Gradient clipping, gradient is set to the threshold. Gradient clipping will chop the gradients

or restricts them to a Threshold value to prevent the gradients from getting too large.

 Q26). What is advantage of pooling layer in convolutional neural networks?

Statistical Average of the Output of the convolution layer, which is easy to compute on the

further steps. This reduces the spatial size of the representation to reduce the amount of

parameters and computation in the network. Pooling layer operates on each feature map

independently.

 Q27). Can RNN be unfolded into full CNN with infinite length?

TRUE, RNN’s neuron can be thought of as a neuron sequence of infinite length of time

steps.

 Q28). Which of the following data augmentation technique would you prefer for an object

recognition problem?

Horizontal flipping, Rescaling, Zooming; Deep learning model actually require so much of

data to train the models. It is very data hungry. And to take advantage of training the models

with various angles of objects we go with this data augmentation technique.

 Q29). Size of Convolution kernel would necessarily increase the performance of CNN?

FALSE, it is hyperparameter so changing it we can increase or decrease performance. We

initially randomly initialize the weights for these kernels and they learn the correct weight by

back propagation. So it make more computation time and occupy resources.

 Q30). Why do we prefer LSTM over RNN?

Due to vanishing gradient, Vanishing gradient problem depends on the choice of the

activation function. Activation functions (e.g sigmoid or tanh) usually ‘squash’ input into a very

small number range in a very non-linear fashion.

 Q31). What are techniques can be used for the keyword normalization?

Stemming and Lemmatization.

Stemming usually is the process that cuts off the ends of words in the hope of deriving the root

word most of the time. So in simple word it just removes the affixes.

Lemmatization uses vocabulary and morphological analysis of words, and most of the time root

it to the correct root words, ex: good for best. The root words are called as lemma.

 Q32). Features used for accuracy improvement of in NLP classification model?

Frequency counts, Vector Notation, POS, Dependency grammar

 Q33). What is the major difference between CRF (Conditional Random Field) and HMM (Hidden

Markov Model)?

HMMs are generative models , models the joint distribution P(y,x). Therefore, model the

distribution of the data P(x). These computations might take longer time compared to directly

computing the conditional probability.

CRFs are discriminative models which model conditional probability P(y|x). As such, they do

not require P(x) to be modelled. This results in faster performance, as they need fewer

parameters to be learned.

 Q34). What is generally the sequence followed when building a neural network architecture for

semantic segmentation for image?

Encoder network on input and Decoder network on output.

The encoder is a classification network which is pre trained and just like VGG/ResNet and

followed by a decoder network.

The decoder is to project the lower resolution features learnt by encoder onto higher resolution

space to get the dense classification.

 Q35). Can Normal Neural Network has long term dependencies on the Sentences?

NO, RNNs and LSTMs can have them. This is because the hidden state information is also

passed to the consecutive layers in RNN and LSTM.

 Q36). What is main difference between AI and ML?

Just think of artificial intelligence as a broader umbrella under which machine learning and deep learning come. From the below diagram we can see that even deep learning is a subset of Machine Leaning. So you can see that all three AI, machine learning and deep learning are the subsets of each other.

Q37). What is the main focus area of artificial intelligence?

a) To solve real-world problems
b) To solve artificial problems
c) To explain various sorts of intelligence
d) To extract scientific causes

Answer: c

 Q38). The most primary method that people use to sense their surrounding is:

a) reading
b) writing
c) speaking
d) seeing

Answer: d

Q39). Where Natural language understanding applications can be seen:

a) natural language interfaces
b) natural language front ends
c) text understanding systems
d) all of the mentioned

Answer: d

Q40). Answer True or False: Zero sum games are the one in which there are two agents whose actions is most alternate and in which the utility values at the end of the game are always the same.

a) True
b) False

Answer: b
Explanation: Utility values are always same and opposite.

 Q41). How Branches are located in AI?

Branches:

– Expert System

– Pattern Recognition

– Swarm Intelligence

– Data Mining

– Genetic Algorithm

– Neural Networks

– Statistical AI

– Fuzzy Logic

 Q42).Describe Game Theory with AI Relation?

Game Theory:

– An AI System will use the game theory for the purpose of the requirement

that enhance as the more than a participant. So, the relation between

the game have two parts like,

a) Participant Design

b) Mechanism Design

 Q43). How an AI can find Conference Information?

Conference Information:

– A webpage that let you search for upcoming or previous conference

in AI disciplinary way which can maintained by a Georg Thimm. So,

that we called as AI based Conference Information.

 Q44). How Relational Knowledge used in AI?

Relational Knowledge:

– A knowledge representation scheme in which facts are represented as a

set of relations. Let’s say e.g. Knowledge about a player can be         represented using a relation called as player which consist of three

fields,

  1. a) Player Name
  2. b) Height
  3. c) Weight

 Q45). Describe the methodology of Inheritable Knowledge in AI?

Inheritable Knowledge:

– A knowledge repesentation scheme which can be represented in the

form of objects, their attributes and the corresponding values of the

attributes.

– The relation between the object defined using a isa property in it.

– Let’s say an e.g. In a game two entities like Amature Male & Person are

presented as objects than the relation between the two is that Amature  Male isa Person.

 Q46). How NLP works against AI?

NLP:

– Natural Language Processing shortly called as NLP.

– It’s nothing but an processing and prehaps based understanding.

– Like, process an computational linguistics with the help of read the

scenario by natural human recognizable language.

 Q47). Describe about Supervised Learning?

Supervised Learning:

– It is one of the machine learning process.

– It process against the output that fed back from computer for software

to learn from for more accurate result in the next time.

– It can receive initial training to start from machine.

  1. State the Unsupervised Learning?

Unsupervised Learning:

– Different Methodology of machine learning.

– Though, in contrast with unsupervised machine learning mean a computer

will learn without training to base its learning on.

 Q48). In Which Scenario AI Accomplished?

– In generic computing machinery & intelligence, computers would able to

pass the tuning test at a reasonably sophiscated level, in a particular

level.

– The average interrogator would not be able to identify the computer correctly more than 70 per cent of the time after a minute of  conversation.

 Q49). How the Semantic Analysis used in AI?

Semantic Analysis:

– Semantic will helps to extract the meaning from the group of

sentence. So, that the semantic would be helpful in AI.

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