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Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions and Answers

Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions and Answers

November 26th, 2018

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Best Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions and Answers

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Q1). Describe about Classical AI & Weak AI?

Classical AI:
It has more concerned with deductive thought as provided with set of constraints, deduce a conclusion
Weak AI:
It simply predicts that some features that are resembling to the human machine intelligence can be incorporated to computer make it more useful tools in it.

Q2). What is a production rule consist of and the which searhc method take a less memory?

Production Rule:
It is a rule which comprises of a set of rule and a sequence of steps in it.
Search Method:
Depth First Search is the method that would takes the less memory for any of the process to follow.

Q3). How A* algorithm is works with search method?

A* Algorithm Search Methodology:
A* algo’s is fully based on first search method and it provides an idea of optimization and quick choose of the path and along-with all the characterisitics lies on it the same.

Q4). What is Heruistic Function & How Neural Networks working in AI?

Heuristic Function:
It is an alternatives function for ranks in search algorithms and at each branching step based on the available information to decide which branch that needs to be follow.
Neural Networks In AI:
In general it is an biological term, but in artificial intelligence it is an emulation of a biological neural system,
which receives the data, process the data and gives output based on the algorithm and empirical data.

Q5). How the Strong AI & Statistical AI works?

Strong AI:
It claims that the computer can be made to think on a level equal to humans. This is what the strong ai performs.
Statistical AI:
It has more concerned with inductive thought as provided with set of patterns, induce with the trend.

Q6). How to resolve a problem with the Game Playing Problem Methodology?

Game Playing Problem Methodology:
Heuristic Approach is the best way to proceed further for game playing problem, though it will use the technique based on intelligent guesswork. Let us say an example like chess game – Chess between human and computer as it will proceed with brute force computation and looking at hundreds of thousands of positions.

Q7). Simple Explanation about Alternate, Artificial, Compound and Natural Key?

Natural Key:
It is one of the data element that is stored within a construct, and it is optimized as the primary key.
Compound & Artifical Key:

  • If there is no single data element that uniquely defines the occurrences within a construct, then integrating multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct and it is called as compound key.
  • If there is no obvious key either stands alone or compound is available, then the last report is to simply create a key by assigning a number to each record or occurrence and it is called a artificial key.

Q8). What is an Agent and How Partial Order or Planning Involve?

Like, anything that preceives its environment by the sensors, and act upon an environment by effectors are called as
Agent. (e.g. Robots, Programs, Humans, HCI, HMI etc.)
Partial Order or Planning:
Instead of searching over possible situation that involves searching over the space of possbile plans. Then the idea can be construct as a plan piece by piece.

Q9). On How many ways we can construct a plan and which property is considered as not a desirable property of a logical rule-based system?

Ways to Construct a Plan:
Action, nothing but add an operator Secondly, add an ordering constraints between the operators
Property not desirable:
Attachment is the one which not considered as a logical-rule based system in artificial intelligence.

Q10). How the Generality and Top-Down Parser works?

It is the ease measure with which the method can be adapted to different domains of application
Top-Down Parser:
It begins by hypothesizing a sentence and successively predicting lower level constituents until that the individual pre-terminal symbols are written.

Q11). How FOPL works in AI?

It’s nothing but a first order predicate logic we called as shortly FOPL.
Working Methodology:

  • It needs a language to express assertions about certain world
  • It needs an inteference system to deductive apparatus whereby we may draw conclusions from such assertions
  • It needs a semantic based on set theory

Q12). How AI perform against Frames and Scripts?


  • They are variant of semantic networks which is one of the popular ways of presenting non-procedural knowledge in an expert system.
  • A frame which is an artificial data structure is used to divide the knowledge into substructure by representing in stereotyped-situations.


  • It is similar with respect to frames but except the values that fill the slots must be ordered.
  • Though, scripts used in natural language understanding systems to organize a knowledge base in terms of the situation that the system should understand.

Q13).Describe the Building Mehtodology of Bayesian Network and Bayes Model with respect to AI?

Build Methodology of Bayesian Network:

  • The Bayesian Network creation, falls under the consequence between a node and its predecessors.
  • And also the node can be conditionally independent of its predecessors.

Build Methodology of Bayes Model:

  • There are three terminology that required to build a Bayes Model.
  • And they should be one conditional probability based and the other two unconditional probability based.

Q14). Breif the Literal that help for top-down inductive learning methods?

The below are the few literal that currently used for inductive learning methodology:

  • Predicates
  • Equality & In-Equality
  • Arithmetic Literals

Q15). What is Hidden Markov Model & Signal Flow In Speech Recoginition?


  • It is ubiquitous tool for modelling time series data or to model sequence behaviour of the system.
  • It can be used in almost all the current speech based systems.
  • It can be stated in single discrete random variable.

Signal Flow Used:
Acoustic signal flow is the one which can be used in the speech to identify the sequence of words.

Q16).  Which is the similar operation performed by the drop-out in neural network?

Bagging; Dropout can be seen as bagging, it each training step it creates a different network which is trained with backpropagation. It is same as ensemble of many networks
trained with a single sample.

Q17). How a neural networks became a universal function approximators?

Answer: Because of the Activation Functions; Yes, the activation functions are helpful in making the functions piecewise linear which in turn helps in representing the any complex function.

Q18). What are the possible reasons for slow learning rate in the Neural networks?


  • Low learning rate,
  • High regularization,
  • Stuck at local Minima

Low learning rate : Because of this the minima is very slow by gradient descent algorithm
High regularization : This will bound the parameter values to the very low values and complexity is very much decreased
Stuck at local Minima : When it is stuck at local minima it requires more iterations or change in learning rate to get out of it.

Q19). Comment on batch Normalization?

Answer: To make the data standardized before sending it to the another layer. It reduces the impacts of previous layers by keeping the mean and variance constant, makes the layers independent of each other. The convergence becomes faster.

Q20). What are the different NLP tasks deep learning can be applied?

Machine translation, Sentiment Analysis, Question and Answer system
Machine translation : Sequence to sequence models are used for this.
Sentiment Analysis : Classification techniques on text using neural networks
Question and Answer system : This is again a Seq to seq model

Q21). What are the disadvantages of representing the words with one hot vectors?


  • No similarities are captures,
  • Very high no. of dimensions to compute One hot vectors are very sparse vectors which are orthogonal to each other and each vector is represented by the same number of total number of different words in corpus. So it is high dimensional as well as no similarities are captured.

Q22). Simple explanation of one hot representation to lower dimension conversion?

Answer: Trained Neural Network with one hidden layer gives the lookup table. First of all train a model NN model with one hidden layer to predict the context words, after the training the actual weight matrix that is learnt by hidden layer is user for representing the words.

Q23). How dropout is different from regularization related?

Answer: When dropout rate is very high, regularization will be very low. It constrains adapting network to the data to avoid over fitting.

Q24). How BPTT varies from vanilla backpropagation?

Answer: In BPTT, in each time step, for each weight the gradients are summed together. Errors will be calculated for each time step. The weights are updated after the network is rolled back.

Q25). What is the way of dealing with “Exploding Gradient” problem in RNNs?

Answer: Gradient clipping, gradient is set to the threshold. Gradient clipping will chop the gradients or restricts them to a Threshold value to prevent the gradients from getting too large.

Q26). What is advantage of pooling layer in convolutional neural networks?

Answer: Statistical Average of the Output of the convolution layer, which is easy to compute on the further steps. This reduces the spatial size of the representation to reduce the amount of parameters and computation in the network. Pooling layer operates on each feature map independently.

Q27). Can RNN be unfolded into full CNN with infinite length?

Answer: TRUE, RNN’s neuron can be thought of as a neuron sequence of infinite length of time steps.

Q28). Which of the following data augmentation technique would you prefer for an object recognition problem?

Answer: Horizontal flipping, Rescaling, Zooming; Deep learning model actually require so much of data to train the models. It is very data hungry. And to take advantage of training the models with various angles of objects we go with this data augmentation technique.

Q29). Size of Convolution kernel would necessarily increase the performance of CNN?

Answer: FALSE, it is hyperparameter so changing it we can increase or decrease performance. We initially randomly initialize the weights for these kernels and they learn the correct weight by back propagation. So it make more computation time and occupy resources.

Q30). Why do we prefer LSTM over RNN?

Answer: Due to vanishing gradient, Vanishing gradient problem depends on the choice of the activation function. Activation functions (e.g sigmoid or tanh) usually ‘squash’ input into a very small number range in a very non-linear fashion.

Q31). What are techniques can be used for the keyword normalization?

Stemming and Lemmatization.
Answer: Stemming usually is the process that cuts off the ends of words in the hope of deriving the root word most of the time. So in simple word it just removes the affixes.
Lemmatization uses vocabulary and morphological analysis of words, and most of the time root it to the correct root words, ex: good for best. The root words are called as lemma.

Q32). Features used for accuracy improvement of in NLP classification model?

Answer: Frequency counts, Vector Notation, POS, Dependency grammar

Q33). What is the major difference between CRF (Conditional Random Field) and HMM (Hidden

Markov Model)?

Answer: HMMs are generative models , models the joint distribution P(y,x). Therefore, model the distribution of the data P(x). These computations might take longer time compared to directly computing the conditional probability.
CRFs are discriminative models which model conditional probability P(y|x). As such, they do not require P(x) to be modelled. This results in faster performance, as they need fewer parameters to be learned.

Q34). What is generally the sequence followed when building a neural network architecture for semantic segmentation for image?


  • Encoder network on input and Decoder network on output.
  • The encoder is a classification network which is pre trained and just like VGG/ResNet and followed by a decoder network.
  • The decoder is to project the lower resolution features learnt by encoder onto higher resolution space to get the dense classification.

Q35). Can Normal Neural Network has long term dependencies on the Sentences?

Answer: NO, RNNs and LSTMs can have them. This is because the hidden state information is also passed to the consecutive layers in RNN and LSTM.

Q36). What is main difference between AI and ML?

Answer: Just think of artificial intelligence as a broader umbrella under which machine learning and deep learning come. From the below diagram we can see that even deep learning is a subset of Machine Leaning. So you can see that all three AI, machine learning and deep learning are the subsets of each other.

Q37). What is the main focus area of artificial intelligence?

a) To solve real-world problems
b) To solve artificial problems
c) To explain various sorts of intelligence
d) To extract scientific causes
Answer: c

Q38). The most primary method that people use to sense their surrounding is:

a) reading
b) writing
c) speaking
d) seeing
Answer: d

Q39). Where Natural language understanding applications can be seen:

a) natural language interfaces
b) natural language front ends
c) text understanding systems
d) all of the mentioned
Answer: d

Q40). Answer True or False: Zero sum games are the one in which there are two agents whose actions is most alternate and in which the utility values at the end of the game are always the same.

a) True
b) False
Answer: b
Explanation: Utility values are always same and opposite.

Q41). How Branches are located in AI?


  • Expert System
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Swarm Intelligence
  • Data Mining
  • Genetic Algorithm
  • Neural Networks
  • Statistical AI
  • Fuzzy Logic

Q42).Describe Game Theory with AI Relation?

Game Theory:
An AI System will use the game theory for the purpose of the requirement that enhance as the more than a participant. So, the relation between the game have two parts like,

  • Participant Design
  • Mechanism Design

Q43). How an AI can find Conference Information?

Conference Information:
A webpage that let you search for upcoming or previous conference in AI disciplinary way which can maintained by a Georg Thimm. So, that we called as AI based Conference Information.

Q44). How Relational Knowledge used in AI?

Relational Knowledge:
A knowledge representation scheme in which facts are represented as a set of relations. Let’s say e.g. Knowledge about a player can be represented using a relation called as player which consist of three fields,

  • Player Name
  • Height
  • Weight

Q45). Describe the methodology of Inheritable Knowledge in AI?

Inheritable Knowledge:

  • A knowledge repesentation scheme which can be represented in the form of objects, their attributes and the corresponding values of the attributes.
  • The relation between the object defined using a isa property in it.
  • Let’s say an e.g. In a game two entities like Amature Male & Person are presented as objects than the relation between the two is that Amature  Male isa Person.

Q46). How NLP works against AI?


  • Natural Language Processing shortly called as NLP.
  • It’s nothing but an processing and prehaps based understanding.
  • Like, process an computational linguistics with the help of read the scenario by natural human recognizable language.

Q47). Describe about Supervised  and Unsupervised Learning?

Supervised Learning:

  • It is one of the machine learning process.
  • It process against the output that fed back from computer for software to learn from for more accurate result in the next time.
  • It can receive initial training to start from machine.

Unsupervised Learning:

  • Different Methodology of machine learning.
  • Though, in contrast with unsupervised machine learning mean a computer will learn without training to base its learning on.

Q48). In Which Scenario AI Accomplished?


  • In generic computing machinery & intelligence, computers would able to pass the tuning test at a reasonably sophiscated level, in a particular level.
  • The average interrogator would not be able to identify the computer correctly more than 70 per cent of the time after a minute of  conversation.

Q49). How the Semantic Analysis used in AI?

Semantic Analysis:
Semantic will helps to extract the meaning from the group of sentence. So, that the semantic would be helpful in AI.

Q50). What is supervised machine learning?

Answer: It requires training using labelled data. Example: in order into do classification, which was a supervised learning task, you’ll first need into label the data you’ll use into train the model into classify data into your labelled groups.

Q51). What’s the difference between a generative & discriminative model?

Answer: A generative model will learn categories have data while a discriminative model will simply learn the distinction between different categories have data.

Q52). What are the algorithms used in ai ?


  • neural networks
  • natural language processing
  • support vector machine

Q53). What is variance?

Answer: This, on the other hand, was error due into way too much complexity in your learning algorithm. Mainly due into this complexity, the algorithm was highly sensitive into high degrees have variation, which can lead your model into over fit the data. Additionally, you will be carrying too much noise from your training data for your model into be useful.

Q54). How KNN was different from k-means clustering?

Answer: The difference between both is, K-Nearest Neighbor was a supervised classification algorithm, whereas k-means was a unsupervised clustering algorithm. The procedure may seem similar at first, what it really means was the in order into K-Nearest Neighbors into work, you need labelled data which you want into classify a unlabeled point into it.

Q55). What was Bayes Theorem?

Answer: Bayes Theorem gives you the posterior probability which have a event given what was known as prior knowledge. Again, it was the basis behind Naive Bayes classifier.

Q56). What was the difference between L1 & L2 regularization?

Answer: First, regularization was the technique which helps into solve over fitting problem in Machine Learning. Regularization inclines into spread error among all the terms, while L1 was more binary, with most variables either being assigned a 1 or 0 in weighting. This corresponds into setting a Laplacian prior on the terms, while L2 corresponds into a Gaussian prior.

Q57). What is Type I error?

Answer: Type one error was false positive, while Type II was false negative. Type one error was claiming something has happened when it hasn’t.

Q58). Explain the difference with Type II with examples.

Answer: Instances are telling a man he was pregnant. Mainly on the other hand, Type II error means you claim nothing was happened but in fact something is. For example, you tell a pregnant lady she isn’t carrying baby.

Q59). What was the difference between Probability & Likelihood?

Answer: The Probability quantifies prediction have outcome whereas likelihood quantifies trust in model. For instances someone challenges us into a profitable gambling game. Then probabilities will serve us into compute like the expected profile have your gains & losses. In contrast, likelihood will serve into quantify whether we trust those probabilities in the first place and whether we smell a rat.

Q60). What Deep Learning was exactly?

Answer: Most people didn’t know this, but Machine Learning & Deep Learning was not two different things, but Deep learning was a subset have Machine learning.

Q61). What DL deals with?

Answer: It mostly deals with neural networks: how into use back propagation & other certain principles from neuroscience into more accurately model large sets have unlabeled data.

Q62). What’s the difference between a generative & discriminative model?

Answer: A discriminative model will understand the distinction between different categories have data, while A generative model will learn categories have data. Models will generously outperform generative models on classification tasks.

Q63). What was Time Series Analysis/Forecasting?

Answer: A Machine Learning data-set which has a collection have observations. For example,
Observation 1
Observation 2
Observation 3
But, a Time series data-set was different. It adds a explicit order dependence between observations: a time dimension.

Q64). What are the additional dimensions?

Answer: The additional dimension was both a constraint & a structure the provides a source has additional information.
Time 1, Observation
Time 2, Observation
Time 3, Observation

Q65). How would you handle a imbalanced data-set?

Answer: It is, for example, you have 90% have the data in one class & 10% in other. Leads into problems such as, no predictive power on the other category have data.

Q66). List few techniques here.

Here were few techniques into get over it,
Obviously collect more data into balance
Try different algorithm (Not going into work effectively)
Correct the imbalance in data-set

Q67). Explain Pruning in Decision trees.

Answer: Pruning has you remove branches they have weak predictive power in order into reduce the complexity have the model & in addition increase the predictive accuracy have a decision tree model.

Q68). What are the several flavors?

Answer: There were several flavors which includes, bottom-up & top-down pruning, with approaches such as reduced error pruning & cost complexity pruning.

Q69). Difference between Model accuracy or Model Performance?

Answer: Your Machine Learning model performance & often look towards details. There were models with higher accuracy it can perform worse in predictive power as well.
Well it has everything into do with how model accuracy was only a subset have model performance & at that, sometimes misleading one.

Q70). Do you have research experience in machine learning?

Answer: Machine Learning was emerging &  no one wants novice players in their teams. Most employers hiring for ML position will look for experience in field. Research papers supervised by leaders in field, can set you apart from herd. Make sure you were ready with all the summary &  justification have the work you have done in the past years.

Q71). What were the last Machine Learning papers you read? Why you think the was important?

Answer: As this field was emerging day by day, it was crucial into keep up with the latest scientific literatures into show the you were really into Machine Learning &  not here just because it was the latest buzzword. Some good books into start with includes Deep Learning by Ian Good fellow.

Q72). How would you approach the “Netflix Prize” competition?

Answer: The Netflix Prize was a famed competition where Netflix offered $1,000,000 for a better collaborative filtering algorithm. The team the won called BellKor had a 10% improvement &  used a ensemble have different methods into win. Some familiarity with the case &  its solution will help demonstrate you’ve paid attention into machine learning for a while.

Q73). What’s your favorite algorithm, & can you explain it into me in less than a minute?

Answer: This type have question mainly tests your ability have communicating complex &  technical nuances with poise &  the ability into summarize quickly &  efficiently. Make sure you have a choice have algorithm which you can explain easily. Try into explain different algorithms so simply &  effectively the a five-year-old could grasp the basics.

Q74). Where do you usually source data-sets?

Answer: This type have questions were the real tie-breakers. If someone was going for a interview, he/she must know the drill have some related question. It was questions like this which purely illustrates your interest in Machine Learning. See my post for detailed answer on where into find machine learning data-sets.

Q75). How do you think Google was training data for self-driving cars?

Answer: Questions like this check your understanding have current affairs in the industry &  how things at certain level works. Google was currently using recaptcha into source labelled data on storefronts &  traffic signs. They were also building on training data collected by Sebastian Thrun at GoogleX.

Q76). How would you implement a recommendation system for our company’s users?

Answer: There will be a lot have questions like this which will involve implementation have machine learning models into their company’s problems. You should definitely study company’s profile &  its products before going in. In addition, factors such as, financials have the company, in which the company operates, what were their users will help you get a clearer picture.

Q77). How will you handle missing data?

Answer: One can find missing data in a data-set &  either drop those rows or columns, or decide into replace them with another value. In python library Pandas there were two useful functions which will be helpful, isnull() &  dropna().

Q78). Describe a hash table.

Answer: A hash table was a data structure the produces a associative array. A key was mapped into certain values through the use have a hash function. They were often used for tasks such as database indexing.

Q79). Which data visualization libraries do you use & why they were useful?

Answer: What’s important here was into define your views on how into properly visualize data &  your personal preferences when it comes into tools. Popular tools include R’s ggplot, Python’s seaborn &  matplotlib, &  tools such as Plot.ly &  Tableau.

Q80). Considering the long list have machine learning algorithm, given a data set, how do you decide which one into use?

Answer: This was one more tricky question. Given what type have data there is, discrete, time series, continuous, you should give your answers.

Q81). What was the difference between supervised & unsupervised machine learning?

Answer: Supervised learning requires training labeled data. For example, in order into do classification (a supervised learning task), you’ll need into first label the data you’ll use into train the model into classify data into your labeled groups. Unsupervised learning, in contrast, do not require labeling data explicitly.

Q82). How was KNN different from k-means clustering?

Answer: K-Nearest Neighbors was a supervised classification algorithm, while k-means clustering was a unsupervised clustering algorithm. While the mechanisms may seem similar at first, what this really means was the in order for K-Nearest Neighbors into work, you need labeled data you want into classify a unlabeled point into (thus the nearest neighbor part). K-means clustering requires only a set have unlabeled points &  a threshold: the algorithm will take unlabeled points &  gradually learn how into cluster them into groups by computing the mean have the distance between different points.
The critical difference here was the KNN needs labeled points &  was thus supervised learning, while k-means doesn’t — &  was thus unsupervised learning.

Q83). Define precision & Recall

Answer: Recall was also known as the true positive rate: the amount have positives your model claims compared into the actual number have positives there were throughout the data. Precision was also known as the positive predictive value, &  it was a measure have the amount have accurate positives your model claims compared into the number have positives it actually claims. It can be easier into think have recall &  precision in the context have a case where you’ve predicted the there were 10 apples &  5 oranges in a case have 10 apples. You’d have perfect recall (there were actually 10 apples, &  you predicted there would be 10) but 66.7% precision because out have the 15 events you predicted, only 10 (the apples) were correct.

Q84). What was Bayes’ Theorem? How was it useful in a machine learning context?

Answer: Bayes’ Theorem gives you the posterior probability have a event given what was known as prior knowledge. Mathematically, it’s expressed as the true positive rate have a condition sample divided by the sum have the false positive rate have the population &  the true positive rate have a condition. Say you had a 60% chance have actually having the flu after a flu test, but out have people who had the flu, the test will be false 50% have the time, &  the overall population only has a 5% chance have having the flu. Would you actually have a 60% chance have having the flu after having a positive test?
Bayes’ Theorem says no. It says the you have a (.6 * 0.05) (True Positive Rate have a Condition Sample) / (.6*0.05)(True Positive Rate have a Condition Sample) + (.5*0.95) (False Positive Rate have a Population)  = 0.0594 or 5.94% chance have getting a flu.
Bayes’ Theorem was the basis behind a branch have machine learning the most notably includes the Naive Bayes classifier. That’s something important into consider when you’re faced with machine learning interview questions.

Q85). Why was “Naive” Bayes naive?

Answer: Despite its practical applications, especially in text mining, Naive Bayes was considered “Naive” because it makes a assumption the was virtually impossible into see in real-life data: the conditional probability was calculated as the pure product have the individual probabilities have components. This implies the absolute independence have features — a condition probably never met in real life.

Q86). What’s your favorite algorithm, & can you explain it into me in less than a minute?

Answer: This type have question tests your understanding have how into communicate complex &  technical nuances with poise &  the ability into summarize quickly &  efficiently. Make sure you have a choice &  make sure you can explain different algorithms so simply &  effectively the a five-year-old could grasp the basics! A clever way into think about this was into think have Type I error as telling a man he was pregnant, while Type II error means you tell a pregnant woman she isn’t carrying a baby.

Q87). What was deep learning, & how do it contrast with other machine learning algorithms?

Answer: Deep learning was a subset have machine learning the was concerned with neural networks: how into use backpropagation &  certain principles from neuroscience into more accurately model large sets have unlabelled or semi-structured data. In the sense, deep learning represents a unsupervised learning algorithm the learns representations have data through the use have neural nets.

Q88). What are the dis advantages of the Uniform Cost Search Algorithm?


  • There can be many remarkably long paths with the cost C*.
  • Uniform Cost quest wants to explore them all.

Q89). Defined as a Bidirectional Search Algorithm?

Answer: Basically, Bidirectional Search Algorithm is started searches front from an original view and behind from goal state. As till both of them appears to know a common state. Moreover, the active state path is concatenated including special goal post-inverse path. Each exploration is performed entirely up to half of the total path.

Q90). Definition of AI Single Agent Pathfinding Problems?

Answer: Such as 3X3 eight-tile, 4X4 fifteen-tile puzzles remain single-agent-path-finding challenges. As others move to consist from one collection from pipes including a modern tile. For, to get the tiles including beginning a tile both vertically and horizontally inside a new space. Also, including identity support from achieving some objective.

Q91). How do you decide between model accuracy and model performance?

Answer: Precision is the number of the True Positives value it’s divided by the product of Actual Positives value also False Positives value. Put another way, it is an important number from positive predictions broken with this total quantity of positive property benefits predicted. It is also called the (PPV) Positive Predictive Value.

Q92). How are the k-nearest Neigh-Bors (KNN) algorithms different from k-means clustering?

Answer: K-means is a learn for the unsupervised algorithm used to clustering the problem whereas KNN is a learn to the supervised algorithm used for analysis and regression problem. This is the fundamental difference between K-means also KNN algorithm. In unsupervised learning, the information is not labelled so reflect the unlabelled data.

Q93). What is p-value?

Answer: It’s perform to the hypothesis analysis in statistics, a p-value supports into determining the importance of your results. The P-value is the 0 to 1 and described into the next way: A small p-value (typically ≤ 0.05) means a big mark against this null hypothesis, therefore you refuse the null data Value.

Q94). How Name search For AI algorithm technology?


  • Problem Space Basically, it is the context in which the research takes place.
  • Problem Instance This is an end of Initial state + Goal state.
  • Problem Space Graph Us do this to design problem state. Also, we practice nodes to show states.
  • The depth of a problem Us can determine that length of that shortest path.

Q95). What is means Brute-Force Search Strategies?


  • State description
  • A set of valid operators
  • Initial state
  • Goal state description

Q96). What is the Breadth-First Search Algorithm?

Answer: Basically, we have to start exploring for the unique root node. And extend into neighboring connections first. Further, moves towards this next level of nodes. As this research can be performed using a FIFO file data structure. This system gives the quickest route to the solution. If the branching operator = b and depth = d, the number from connections at level d = bd. The absolute no of nodes created during this serious case is b + b2 + b3 + … + bd.

Q97). What is meant by Uniform Cost Search Algorithm?

Answer: Basically, it makes sorting in increasing the value of the path over a node. Also, always increases single least value node. Although, it is just to Breadth-First analysis if each turn becomes the same cost. It examines ways into particular developing order of cost.

Q98). What is meant by Auto-encoder, name a few applications?


  • Data denoising
  • Dimensionality reduction
  • Image reconstruction
  • Image colorization

Q99). Definition of LSTM

Answer: LMS Stand for (Long Short Term Memory) – are explicitly intended to address this long time dependency problem, by having a state something to remember also what to forget.
List of the key components of LSTM

  • Gates (forget, Memory, update & Read)
  • tanh(x) (values between -1 to 1)
  • Sigmoid(x) (values between 0 to 1)

Q100). What is meant by dropouts?

Answer: Dropout is a simple process to prevent a Neural network of overfitting. Dropping out any of these units in each neural network. In Reproduction, nature provides offspring with connecting different genes rather than strengthening co-adapting them.

Q101). List of the difference of activation neurons or functions.


  • Linear Neuron
  • Binary Threshold Neuron
  • Stochastic Binary Neuron
  • Sigmoid Neuron
  • Tanh function
  • Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU)

Q102). What are the components Tensorflow objects?


  • Constants
  • Variables
  • Placeholder
  • Graph
  • Session

Q103). How to install Tensorflow?


  • Installation with pip
  • Installation with Anaconda
  • Verifying the Installation

Q104). What is means by Tensorflow?

Answer: TensorFlow is one of the open source machine learning language library. It is quick, flexible and a low-level toolkit for creating a difficult algorithm more allows each user’s customizability to give experimental knowledge thoughts more to manage toward them to give coveted outputs.

Q105). How Should Knowledge be Re-presented to be Used For an Ai Technique?


  • Knowledge should move represented such that it should be read by some people who have provided it
  • Knowledge should be represented within any way that it can be easily modified
  • Knowledge should move represented so that it should still be relevant to individual or more positions even if it is mistaken or incomplete

Q106). Explain types of Artificial Intelligence?

Answer: Strong artificial intelligence
Basically, it deals with any work of real intelligence artificially. Also, large AI understands that means can be formed sentient.

Q107). Weak artificial intelligence

Answer: As a result, it doesn’t believe construction human-level mind in machines remains possible. Although, AI techniques can expect molded to solve many real-life problems.

Q108). Explain about from Goal of Artificial Intelligence?


  • To Create Expert Systems it is this kind of system in which this system show intelligent behavior, including information its users.
  • To Complete Human Intelligence during Machines It is this way of imagining the systems that understand, think, learn, also behave like humans.

Q109). What are the Branches Of AI?


  • Automatic Programming
  • Bayesian Networks
  • Constraint Satisfaction
  • Knowledge of Engineering/Representation
  • Machine Learning
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Neural Networks
  • Planning
  • Robotics
  • Speech Recognition

Q110). Explain about from difference between strong AI and weak AI?

Answer: Strong AI makes strong demands that machines can be started to think at a level equal before humans while weak AI only predicts that some features that are resembling human intelligence can be incorporated to the computer to perform it also useful tools.

Q111). What are the techniques to represent Knowledge?


  • Relational knowledge: knowledge is described as a set of relations, related to bonds that are done in the database
  • Inheritable knowledge: knowledge is represented managing objects, their attributes and some importance of these attributes
  • Inferential knowledge: knowledge is expressed in the form from first-order word logic
  • Procedural knowledge: knowledge is represented as a collection of commands and a command describes an action to be executed when a condition is met

Q112). What are applications using for AI ?


  • Natural Language Processing
  • Gaming
  • Speech Recognition

Q113). What do you know about artificial intelligence? Give an example where AI is used in our regular lives?

Answer: Artificial Intelligence, also known as machine intelligence, is the field of computer science. It focuses on developing machines that demonstrate human intelligence. The AI gives the capability to the machines to mimic the human mind and behavior. Some of the most common examples of AI in our daily lives are smartphones, search engines, smart cars and drones, social media, etc.

Q114). What are the major artificial intelligence technologies?

Answer: The major artificial intelligence technologies are speech recognition, decision management, robotics automation, computer vision, text analysis, image recognition, reasoning, cognitive capabilities and so on.

Q115). List five popular Artificial Intelligence programming languages?

Answer: The programming languages that can fulfill the requirements of artificial intelligence are mentioned below:

  • Java
  • Python
  • C++
  • Prolog
  • Lisp

Q116). Describe the relationship between machine learning and artificial intelligence?

Answer: The machine learning is the subset of artificial intelligence. It majorly focuses on the acquisition of knowledge. It has a simple concept which involves processing data and learning from it. The aim of machine learning is to learn the data for a particular task. We can say that machine learning is just a small technique used for the implementation of artificial intelligence.

Q117). Distinguish between strong and weak artificial intelligence?

Answer: The strong AI: It has a vast scope and can be applied widely. The strong AI utilizes the clustering and association to process data. It has strong human intelligence. Examples of strong AI are advanced robots.
The weak AI is specially designed for the narrow application which makes it good at a specific task only. This is why it has a limited scope. The weak AI uses unsupervised and supervised learning to evaluate data. The examples of weak AI are Alexa, Siri, Google Assistance, etc.

Q118). Name some different types of Artificial Intelligence and explain them?

Answer: These are the four different types of AI:

  • Reactive Machines: The most basic type of AI is reactive machines. This AI never uses the previous experience to form the present decisions. It consistently keeps updating the information.
  • Self-Awareness: This AI possesses the ability to work according to human consciousness and reactions. With this AI the machines can perform self-driven actions.
  • Theory of Mind: The theory of mind AI has the ability to understand the emotions, feelings and other things of the real world.
  • Limited Memory: The best example to describe limited memory AI is self-driven cars. It automatically detects the movements and activities of the vehicles and adds it to the memory.

Q119). Name some domains of artificial intelligence?

Answer: The popular domains of artificial intelligence are mentioned below:

  • Machine Learning
  • Neural Network
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Fuzzy Logic System
  • Robotics
  • Expert Systems

Q120). Describe neural network in artificial intelligence?

Answer: The artificial neural network is the computing system with the set of techniques and algorithms designed in accordance to the human brain. This is composed of artificial nodes and neurons to solve complex and advance problems.

Q121). What are some commonly used Artificial Neural Networks?

Answer: The common forms of artificial neural networks are:

  • Feedforward Neural Networks
  • Convolutional Neural Networks
  • Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN)
  • Autoencoders

Q122). Mention the difference between statistical and classical artificial intelligence?

Answer: The classical AI is concerned with deductive thoughts like deducing the conclusion, set of constraints, etc. The preferred language for classical AI is LISP.
The statistical AI is more emphasized towards inductive thoughts such as induce the trend and set of patterns etc. C++ is the major programming language for statistical AI

Q123). Explain intelligent agents and their uses in artificial intelligence?

Answer: The intelligent agents in artificial intelligence refer to the autonomous entities which basically uses sensors to evaluate the situation and make decisions. These entities have the ability to solve complex tasks. Plus, intelligent agents are specifically programmed to accomplish the task in a better way.

Q124). Explain the deep learning and its relation to artificial intelligence?

Answer: It is the subset of machine learning which mimics the functionality of the human brain. The deep learning majorly uses the concepts of neural networks to perform the complex task. This enables the software to machines to prepare itself to perform tasks of artificial intelligence.

Q125). Name three layers of deep neural network?

Answer: The three layers of the deep neural network are:

  • Input Layer
  • Hidden Layer
  • Output Layer

Q126). List some examples of artificial intelligence in use?

Answer: The common example of artificial intelligence are mentioned below:

  • Image Tagging
  • Speech Recognition
  • Chatbots
  • Self-Driving Cars
  • Sales Prediction
  • Facial Expression Recognition
  • Sentiment Analysis

Q127). Explain the Turing Test In Artificial Intelligence?

Answer: This is the methodology used to test the ability of the machine, whether it matches human intelligence or not. The machines that clear the Turing test is considered as an intelligent machine.

Q128). Describe the expert system and its characteristics?

Answer: It is the program of artificial intelligence which possesses the expert-level knowledge about the particular area. It uses the information to perform the task properly. The special characteristics of the expert system are reliability and understandability.

Q129). Explain Q-learning?

Answer: It is the model-free reinforcement learning algorithms. The major aim of Q-learning is to learn a policy. This learning policy helps the agent what actions should be taken in particular circumstances.

Q130). Explain the meaning of alternate, artificial, compound and natural key?

Answer: The alternate key: All the candidate keys are known as alternate key excluding the primary keys.
Artificial key: The last resort creates the key by assigning the specific code to each record. This key is known as the artificial key.
Compound Key: When multiple elements are combined together to develop a unique identifier for the construct then it is known as the compound key.
Natural Key: the natural key refers to the key used when the data elements stored in the construct is used as the primary key.

Q131). What research method is the A* algorithm is based on?

Answer: The A* algorithms are based on the best-first research method. It provides the idea of optimization. It also makes it easier to choose the path quickly.

Q132). Name the entities in knowledge representation

Answer: There are two major kinds of entities in knowledge representation:

  • Facts
  • Symbols

Q133). Explain the TensorFlow and its uses?

Answer: The TensorFlow is used in neural network research and machine learning. It is an open-source software library that is utilized for data-flow programming. The TensorFlow is majorly used to develop the AI features into the applications.

Q134). Name the programming language that is not commonly used for artificial intelligence?

Answer: Perl programming language is not commonly used for Artificial intelligence.

Q135). Explain the frames and scripts in artificial intelligence?

Answer: The frames in AI are the variants of semantic networks. These frames are considered as the popular way of demonstrating the non-procedural knowledge in the expert machines and systems.
The scripts are quite similar to the frames but it is important to order the values that fill the slots. These scripts are used to organize the knowledge in the terms that is understandable for the system.

Q136). How Bayesian Network is related to artificial intelligence?

Answer: This network is the graphical model in artificial intelligence for the probabilistic relationship among a set of variables. It basically imitates the human mind for processing variables.

Q137). Explain the constraint satisfaction problems and how they are useful for AI?

Answer: These are the mathematical problems defined as the set of objects. The state of these objects must meet the number of constraints. The constraint satisfaction problems are very beneficial for Artificial intelligence because of its formulation for analyzing and solving the problems.

Q138). Describe the use of semantic analysis in artificial intelligence?

Answer: The semantic analysis is used in artificial intelligence to extract the meaning from the group of the sentence.

Q139). What does FOPL means and explain its role in artificial intelligence?

Answer: The FOPL is the abbreviation of First Order Predicate Logic. It is the language to define the assertions about certain “world”. The FOPL is an inference system that has deductive apparatus to draw conclusions from the assertions.

Q140). Explain the relation between computer vision and Artificial intelligence?

Answer: The computer vision is part of artificial intelligence. It extracts the information from multi-dimensional data and images. It uses various AI technologies to solve complex problems like processing images, object detection, etc.

Q141). How AI and game theory are related?

Answer: The game theory enables the capabilities that are necessary for multi-agent environments. In these environments, the AI programs interact to accomplish a particular goal or task.

Q142). What is Automatic programming in artificial intelligence?

Answer: In artificial intelligence, it is the type of programming in which the program code is automatically generated by some other program according to certain specifications.

Q143) What is Artificial Intelligence?

AI (Artificial Intelligence) is the replica of human intelligence processes by computer systems and other machines. Learning, self-correction, and reasoning are some of the human intelligence processes. Some of the application of Artificial Intelligence includes speech recognition, machine vision, and expert system.

Q144) What are the various AI types?

There are different types of AI namely
Limited Memory AI – It’s utilized mostly in self-driving cars. They help in detecting the constant vehicle movement around them and store it in the memory.
Self Aware AI: It’s the AI which posses similar reaction and consciousness as a human. This type of machine is capable of forming self-driven actions.
Reactive Machines AI: One of the examples of Reactive Machines AI is Deep Blue. It cannot utilize past experiences to create the present decisions and will not be able to store it into their memory simultaneously.
Theory of Mind AI: It’s one of the advanced artificial intelligence which can understand the people, their emotions and the things present in the real world.
AGI (Artificial General Intelligence): This AI is termed as strong AI, one example of this AI is the Pillo robots which answer queries related to health.
ANI (Artificial Narrow Intelligence): This is one of the AI used for general purposed like Siri.
ASI (Artificial Superhuman Intelligence): The AI can do everything that a human does. One example of this type of AI is the first humanoid ASI robot Alpha 2.

Q145) Which domains make use of Artificial Intelligence?

Cognitive Science, Ethics, Logic, Natural Sciences, Physiology, Statistics, Computer Science, Engineering, Linguistics, Mathematics, Philosophy, Psychology are some of the domains that make use of Artificial Intelligence.

Q146) What are some of the AI applications?

Chatbots, Sales prediction, self-driving cars, image tagging, natural language processing, sentiment analysis, and facial expression recognition are some applications used in AI.

Q147) What is mean by Neural Networks in Artifical Intelligence?

The neural networks in AI are capable of modelling mathematically in the way how a biological brain works. It allows the machine to learn, think, make changes similar to the human does and therefore make them recognize everything like objects, animals, plants, speech, and more efficiently.

Q148) State the difference between Weak AI and Strong AI?

Weak AI is good only at particular tasks, is able to narrow applications with less scope. It processes the data based on supervised and unsupervised learning. Some of the examples of Weak Ai is Alexa and Siri.
Strong AI is capable of performing any type of task similar to the humans, it is used everywhere and make use of association and clustering to process the data. Example of strong AI is advanced robotics.

Q149) Mention the programming languages that are used in Artificial Intelligence?

  • R
  • Prolog
  • Python
  • Lips
  • Java

Q150) What do you mean by Turing test in AI?

It’s an effective method to test the ability of the machine, checks whether it matches the intelligence level of humans.

Q151) Can you relate machine learning with artificial intelligence?

AI is a technique which helps the machines to simulate the behavior of the human. When considering machine learning, it’s considered to be the artificial intelligence’s subset. It is the process of making use of the computers to act by providing the data and making them learn a few data on their own without any extra program explicitly. Machine learning is related to AI as it are used to execute Artificial Intelligence.

Q152) What are the Machine Learning types>

There are three types of machine learning namely

  • Unsupervised learning
  • Reinforcement learning
  • Supervised learning

Q153) What do you mean by Deep Learning?

Deep learning mimics the way how the human brain works. It means it learns a lot from human experiences. It makes use of neural network concepts to solve complicated issues. There are three kinds of deep learning layers namely
Input layer: In this layer, it gets the input and then sent to the hidden layer for complete analysis.
Hidden Layer: This layer, there are different computations. They are executed and the result is sent to the output layer. There is a chance for more number of hidden layers based on the issues you are trying to solve.
Output Layer: in this layer, they are responsible for sending the data to the outside from the neural network.

Q154) What is mean by Prolog in Artificial Intelligence?

It’s one of the programming languages on logic.

Q155) What do you mean by intelligent agents?

An autonomous entity that influences the sensors to know the situation actively and make the right decision. It makes use of the actuators to do both complex and simple tasks.

Q156) What do you mean by TensorFlow?

It’s an open-source framework based on Machine learning. It’s one of the highly adaptive and comprehensive ecosystems of community resources, tools, and libraries that help developers deploy, and manage Ml-powered applications. Google Cloud Vision and AlphaGo are developed on TensorFlow platforms.
Mention some of the benefits of Artificial Intelligence?>
We make use of science of robotics and AI in mining. We also utilize complex machines to explore the ocean.
Artificial Intelligence help to decrease the risk.
Banking and financial institutions make use of AI to organize and control data.

Q157) What do you mean by the expert system and their characteristics?

It’s an artificial intelligence program that holds advanced knowledge regarding any particular area, also knows how to make use of the data to react in the right way. The system contains substitute and the characteristics of an expert system are

  • Adequate response time
  • Understandability
  • High performance
  • Reliability

Q158) What are the benefits of an expert system?

  • Memory
  • Logic
  • Ability to reason
  • Unbiased in nature
  • Consistency
  • Diligence
  • Multiple expertise
  • Faster response

Q159) What do you mean by hyperparameters?

They are the variables that define the network structure. For instance, the learning rate variable explores how the networks are getting trained.
Hyperparameters in deep neural networks are utilized to explore the hidden layers present in the network.
The hidden unit numbers can increase network accuracy, while less network accuracy can cause underfitting.

Q160) What do you mean by Automatic Programming?

It defines what a program should perform, it has the AI system which writes the program.

Q161) image recognition an important function of Artificial Intelligence?

Yes. Artificial Intelligence is developed to imitate the visual human brain. It’s important to teach machines about identifying and differentiate images in the AI. Image recognition helps the machines to identify the characters easily.

Q162) Is Bayesian network related to AI?

The Bayesian network is considered to be the graphic model belonging to the set of variables probabilistic relationship. It is related to artificial intelligence as it simulates the human brain in case of variable processing. The Bayesian network holds both continuous and discrete variables.

Q163) What do you mean by heuristic function?

A heuristic function is derived to rank alternatively at every branding in search algorithms depending on the available data to decide which is the right branch to follow.

Q164) Mention the difference between statistical AI and Classical AI?

Classical AI is concerned with the deductive thought of providing constraint sets, whereas Statistical AI arises from the ML. It tends to concern with the inductive thoughts of providing patterns.

Q165) What do you mean by Chatterbot?

It’s one of the game.

Q166) Do Intelligent agents and bots have emotions and personalities?

Intelligence Agents are used for developing bots. It makes use of the Machine Language and natural language. It is able to answer when a person uses the right ontology.

Q167) Mention the knowledge’s undesirable properties?

Variability: Knowledge holds a property which is able to change at specific times.
Voluminous: There is chance of knowledge to become voluminous.
Usage variations: It’s used in different ways through the organized data.
Difficult to characterize: Characterizing the knowledge is difficult at times.

Q168) What are the type of entities in Knowledge representation?

Symbols: It represents facts and is manipulated by the data to produce new facts.
Facts: They are the truths which need representation.

Q169) Mention the techniques for knowledge representation?

  • Inheritable Knowledge
  • Procedural Knowledge
  • Relational Knowledge
  • Inferential Knowledge

Q170) When a system of knowledge representation is identified as good?

When the knowledge representation has the below categories, they are identified as good.

  • Inferential Adequacy
  • Acquisition Efficiency
  • Representation Adequacy
  • Inferential Efficiency

Q171) Mention the two steps to take in constructing a plan?

Action (adding an operator)
Adding a constraint in between the operators while ordering.