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Q1) How do configure a cisco router to route ipx?
Answer:To initial things to enable ipx routing using by ipx routing protocol.
Q2)What are the ipx access list?
Q3)What is subnetting?
Answer:It is the process of creating smaller network into large networks.
Q4)What are the advantage of layered models in the networking industry?
Answer:A layered network offers of many advantages. Allow the administartors to make the change in one layer without changes in other layers.
Q5)Why is UDP lease favored when compared to TCP?
Answer:Its because UDP is unreliable and unsequenced.
Q6)What are standards of presentation layer?
Answer:It is support which data ensures that data is presented correctly.
Q7)What is easy way to remotely configure a router?
Answer:The most convenient to use the CISCO auto install procedure.
Q8)What does the show protocol display?
- Routed protocols that is configured
- The address assigned on each interface
Q9)How do you depict an ip address?
- Using dotted-deciaml
- Using binary
- Using hexadeciaml
Q10)Expand of HDLC?
Answer:High-level data link control protocol.
Q11)What is Bandwidth?
Answer:To refer the transmission capacity of a medium. will measure how much of volume a transmission channel.
Q12)How are inter networks created?
Answer:created when networks are connected using routers.
Q13)How does hold-downs work?
- Its to prevent regular update message from reinstating downed by a link
- Removing that link from update message
Q14)What are the packets?
Answer:Packets are the results of data encapsulation.
Q15)What are the segments?
Answer:Segments are section of a data stream that comes from the upper OSI layers.
Q16)Benefits of LAN switching?
- Allows full duplex
- Media rate adaption
- Easy and efficient migration
Answer:Data Link Connection Identifiers.
Q18)What are types of password used in CISCO routers?
Answer:Five types of password
Q19)Why is network segmentation to managing a large networks?
Answer:Segmenting a network would help network traffic and ensures that high bandwith.
Q20)How do access the identifying the router information?
Answer:The host name and the interface.
Q21)What is the size of IPv4 and IPv6?
- IPv4 -32 bits
- IPv6 -128 bits
Q22)What is the process of DHCP?
Answer:It has dora process.
Q23)Mention the boot is?
Answer:To use computer networking protocol use to deploy an ip address to network devices from a configuration.
Q4)Mention the ranges for the private IPs?
- Class a: 10.0.0.0-10.0.0.255
- Class b:172.16.0.0-172.31.0.0
- Class c:192.168.0.0-192.168.0.255
Q25)How many ways to access the router?
Q26)Mention the matric of eigrp protocol?
Q27)Mention the clock rate?
Answer:Clock rate the routers or DCE to communicate appropriately.
Q28)What command do we give router ios is stucks?
Answer:Ctrl+shift+F6 and x.
Q29)What is route poisoning?
Answer:Route positioning is a technique of preventing a network from transmitting packets in route it became a invalid.
Q30)Which route entry will be assigned to dead or invalid route in rip?
Answer:16 hops assigned to dead or invalid route making to unreachable.
Answer:Network as the inside and everything else as a outside Will be in firewall.
Q32)Identify the true statements?
Answer:stateless packet filtering consider the TCP connection to the state b.
Q33)The CISCO IOS firewall feature act as a stateful or stateless packet filter?
Answer:The CISCO IOS firewall is stateful filter.
Q34)What are the three key features of URL filtering?
- Predefined URL categories
- Malware protection
Q35)How many types of RIP message?
Answer:Two types of message request and response.
Q36)What is the TCP and BGP port number?
Answer:BGP is 179 and TCP is 0.
Q37)What will be the net mask for /24?
Q38)What will be net mask for the /16?
Q39)What is the level one routing in is-is?
Answer:It has to work with destination point.
Answer:Border Gateway Protocol.
Q41)What is difference between the STP and RSTP?
- Stp to prevent the loop address
- Rspt is almost same as stp to reduce the port forwarding time
Q42)What is core network?
Answer:Without core network whole network will not run.
Q43)Which layer SIP protocol work?
Answer:Sip will work at application.
Q44)Which layer hub work?
Q45)What is load Balancer?
Answer:It is balancing the packet flows.
Q46)What is the purpose of http protocol?
Answer:Used to transfer data or files.
Q47)What are the three routing protocols?
- Distance vector
- Balanced hybrid
Q48)What is ad of extended EIGPR?
Q49)What will be the BGP first prefix accessible?
Answer:Will check the next hop attributes to determine next hop is accessible.
Q50)What is difference between RIP and OSPF?
Answer:Rip broadcast its routing table after reach 30 sec OSPF only entries the update of missing neighbor routing tables.
Q51) Define Network?
Answer: Network all in all terms implies a gathering of gadgets, associated with the assistance of a few media so as to share a few assets from a source to a goal and networking is a procedure of sharing the assets.
Q52) Differentiate User Mode from Privileged Mode.
Answer: Directions connected on client mode can’t impact the switch while a few directions of benefit mode can change the arrangements. In client mode, no setup can be made. We can just check the reachability and some essential directions in that mode. While in Privilege mode we can spare, erase and change the design documents.
Q52) What is a Link?
Answer: Connection is a physical or a legitimate segment of a network to interconnect hubs or gadgets.
Q53) What is Bandwidth?
Answer: Transfer speed is the limit of a wired or remote network correspondences connect to transmit the most extreme measure of information starting with one point then onto the next over a PC network or web association in a given measure of time – typically one moment.
Q54) What is the variance between broadcast domain and collision domain ?
Answer: Communicate area is where if a communicated edge is sent, each gadget focuses and gets the information. While in Collision area, odds of information crash is greatest. Like in Hub , if at least two send traffic in the meantime, information will crash in the middle of and none of the gadgets will get the information.
Q55) Explain Flooding?
Answer: In a network, flooding is the sending by a switch of a parcel from any hub to each other hub connected to the switch with the exception of the hub from which the bundle arrived. Flooding is an approach to disseminate directing data refreshes rapidly to each hub in a substantial network.
Q56) What is Telnet?
Answer: A network convention that enables a client on one PC to sign onto another PC .it utilizes TCP Port number 23
Q57) What is a node?
Answer: Node is an association point on network for information transmission. It tends to be a PC or printer or any sort of gadget that is equipped for sending and getting the information over the network.
Q58) What is a gateway?
Answer: Gateway is a node of a network which can be utilized as a passage for other network. It is a bit of equipment and not quite the same as default gateway.
Q59) What is WAN?
Answer: A wide area network (WAN) is a network that exists over a vast scale land area. A WAN associates diverse littler networks, including neighborhood (LANs) and metro area networks (MANs). This guarantees PCs and clients in a single area can speak with PCs and clients in different areas..
Q60) How does cut-through LAN switching work?
Answer: In Cut-Through LAN exchanging, when the switch gets the information outline, it will promptly send it out again and forward it to the following network portion in the wake of perusing the goal address.
Q61) What is point-point link?
Answer: An association between two hubs of the system is alluded as point to point organize and that interface which associates the two hubs is point to point connect. Point-to-point convention is generally utilized for the heavier and quicker connections essential for broadband correspondences.
Q62) What is VPN?
Answer: A virtual private system (VPN) expands a private system over an open system, and empowers clients to send and get information crosswise over shared or open systems as though their processing gadgets were specifically related with the private system. Applications running over the VPN may Therefore profit by the usefulness, security, and the executives of the private system.
Q63) what is latency ?
Answer: System inactivity is an outflow of how much time it takes for a parcel of information to get starting with one assigned point then onto the next. In a few conditions idleness is estimated by sending a parcel that is come back to the sender; the round-trip time is viewed as the dormancy.
Q64) What’s the benefit of subnetting?
Answer: With the assistance of subnetting we can break a huge system into littler systems and allot IP delivers to those systems without changing our significant system. It helps in using our IP tends to all the more effectively.
Q65) What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)?
Answer: BGP is an outside entryway convention used to interface at least two diverse independent frameworks. It is broadly being utilized to course the traffic of Internet. It can likewise work for inner AS yet we have better conventions for inside network. It has Administrative separation of 20 for outer courses and 200 for inner courses.
Q66) Explain clustering support?
Answer: In a PC framework, a bunch is a gathering of servers and different assets that demonstration like a solitary framework and empower high accessibility and, now and again, stack adjusting and parallel preparing.
Q67) What is DoS?
Answer: DOS (Disk Operating System) is a working framework that keeps running from a hard plate drive. The term can likewise allude to a specific group of circle working frameworks, most generally MSDOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System).
Q68) What is NOS?
Answer: A network operating system (NOS) is a PC operating system that is planned essentially to help workstation, PC, and, in a few occasions, more seasoned terminal that are associated on a neighborhood (LAN).
Q69) What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol?
Answer: Gateway-to-Gateway convention is currently out of date. This was being utilized for steering datagrams between web gateways. It utilizes Minimum jump Algorithm.
Q70) What are some disadvantages of implementing a ring topology?
Answer: On the off chance that one workstation on the system endures a glitch, it can cut down the whole system. Another downside is that when there are modifications and reconfigurations should have been performed on a specific piece of the system, the whole system must be briefly brought down also.
Q71) What is a Multi-homed Host?
Answer: Multi-homed have is characterized as a hub associated with more than one systems. Like a PC can be associated with both Home system and a VPN. These sort of hosts can be doled out with various locations, one for each system.
Q72) What is OSPF?
Answer: OSPF represents Open Shortest Path First. It is a connection state directing convention that can associate an expansive number of systems without having any confinement to number of jumps. It utilizes Dijkstra Algorithm and thinks about Cost as its measurement. It has AD of 110 and utilizations the ideas of Areas, Router-id, Process-id and Virtual connection for availability.
Q73) What is Routing?
Answer: Directing is a procedure of trading course data shape one switch to another. Without directing it is difficult to associate at least two systems situated at various or same land territories.
Q74) What is a Protocol?
Answer: Convention is set of guidelines on which a sender and a beneficiary consents to transmit the information. Conventions are in charge of information correspondence in the middle of systems
Q75) What is a Frame Relay?
Answer: Edge transfer is a bundle exchanging media transmission benefit intended for cost-proficient information transmission for discontinuous traffic between neighborhood (LANs) and between endpoints in wide region systems (WANs).
Switches bolster full duplex information exchange correspondence. As layer 2 conventions headers have no data about system of information parcel so switches can’t forward information based or arranges and that is the reason switches can’t be utilized with vast systems that are partitioned in sub systems.
Switches can stay away from circles using spreading over tree convention. Switches can have 24-48 ports and can be for all intents and purposes boundless ports since they don’t partition speed dissimilar to Hubs.
Switches are the system gadgets that work at Layer-3 of OSI demonstrate.
As layer-3 conventions approach legitimate location (IP addresses) so switches have the ability to forward information crosswise over systems.
Switches are undeniably more component rich when contrasted with switches.
Switches keep up directing table for information sending.
Switches have lesser port densities when contrasted with switches.
Switches are typically utilized as a sending system components in Wide Area Networks.
Q76) What is Checksum?
Answer: A checksum is a blunder location strategy in a the transmitter processes a numerical incentive as per the quantity of set or disconnected bits in a message and sends it alongside each message outline. At the collector end, a similar checksum work (recipe) is connected to the message edge to recover the numerical esteem. On the off chance that the got checksum esteem coordinates the sent esteem, the transmission is viewed as fruitful and mistake free. A checksum may likewise be known as a hash total
Q77) What is Redundancy ?
Answer: Excess is a strategy for safeguarding system accessibility if there should be an occurrence of system or way disappointment. For the most part alluded as reinforcement ways in a systems.
Q78) What is multicast routing?
Answer: Multicast IP Routing conventions are utilized to appropriate information (for instance, sound/video gushing communicates) to numerous beneficiaries. Utilizing multicast, a source can send a solitary duplicate of information to a solitary multicast address, which is then dispersed to a whole gathering of beneficiaries.
Q79) What are the criteria essential for a compelling and productive system?
It can be estimated from numerous points of view, including transmit time and reaction time.
It is estimated by recurrence of disappointment, the time it takes a connection to recuperate from a disappointment, and the system’s power.
Security issues incorporate shielding information from unapproved access and infection
Q80) What is the key preferred standpoint of utilizing switches?
Answer: Switch doesn’t communicate on every one of the ports. They can be overseen and vlans taxi be made. They are quick, can store MAC addresses. They additionally don’t isolate the speed on every port.
The principle favorable position of utilizing switches is that each switch port has its very own impact space which expels the occurance of crash of casings. It advances the bundles dependent on the goal address, along these lines eleminating superfluous sending of parcels to all ports as in center points.
Q81) When does network congestion occur?
Answer: Clog happens when transfer speed is lacking and arrange information traffic surpasses limit.
Q82) Does a bridge divide a network into smaller segments?
Answer: No, What an extension really does is to take the huge system and channel it, without changing the extent of the system.
Q83) What is the extent of IP Address?
Answer: The extent of ipv4=32bit or 4byte and ipv6=128bit or 16bytes
Q84) What is the scope of class C address?
Answer: 192.0.0.0 to 184.108.40.206 Supports 254 hosts
Q85) What is POE (Power over Ethernet)?
Answer: Control over Ethernet or PoE pass electric power alongside information on contorted match Ethernet cabling. This enables a solitary link to give the two information association and electric capacity to gadgets, for example, remote passageways, IP cameras, and VoIP telephones. It limits the quantity of wires required to introduce the system.
Q86) What are the upsides of Distributed Processing?
Answer: Disseminated information handling is a PC organizing technique in which numerous PCs crosswise over various areas share PC preparing capacity. This is rather than a solitary, brought together server overseeing and giving handling ability to every associated framework. PCs that involve the appropriated information handling system are situated at various areas yet interconnected by methods for remote or satellite.
Q87) When were OSI show created and why its standard called 802.XX, etc?
Answer: OSI display was created in February1980 that why these additionally known as802.XX Standard 80 implies =1980 and 2means =February.
Q88) What is Full type of AD?
Answer: Regulatory Distance or it tends to be Advertised Distance.
Q89) What is a peer-peer process?
Answer: Means “Shared.” In a P2P arrange, the “peers” are PC frameworks which are associated with one another by means of the Internet. Documents can be shared specifically between frameworks on the system without the need of a focal server. At the end of the day, every PC on a P2P organize turns into a record server just as a customer.
Q90) What is ping? Why you use ping?
Answer: Ping is an utility used to test the availability in the system. It represents Packet Internet Groper.it utilizes ICMP [internet Control message convention ]Protocol.
Q91) How does ISPF affect or enhance the OSPF organize?
Answer: Steady SPF is more proficient than the full SPF calculation, in this manner permitting OSPF to meet quicker on another steering topology in response to a system occasion. The steady SPF is structured so that it just updates the influenced hubs without revamping the entire tree. This outcomes in a quicker combination and spares CPU cycles on the grounds that the unaffected hubs don’t should be prepared. Concerning the best practice ISPF would have to a greater extent an effect for a substantial OSPF area.
Gradual SPF gives more prominent enhancements in combination time for systems with a high number of hubs and connections. Gradual SPF additionally gives a huge preferred standpoint when the adjustments in the system topology are further far from the foundation of the SPT; for instance, the bigger the system the more critical the effect. A fragment of 400-1000 hubs should see upgrades. In any case, it may be difficult to confirm in a sent generation arrange without some sort of office or instrument to gauge the start to finish delay. For more data, allude to OSPF Incremental SPF.
Q92) Is there an approach to analyze Cisco NX-OS/IOS OSPF directions?
Answer: Indeed, allude to Cisco NX-OS/IOS OSPF Comparison.
Q93) Is there any component of OSPF convention for speedy combination and a moderate re-intermingling of courses?
Answer: The OSPF Shortest Path First Throttling highlight makes it conceivable to design SPF planning for millisecond interims and to possibly postpone SPF estimations amid system insecurity. SPF is planned to figure the Shortest Path Tree (SPT) when there is an adjustment in topology.
Sentence structure of the order under OSPF:
clocks throttle spf [spf-start] [spf-hold] [spf-max-wait]
spf-begin—Initial postponement to plan a SPF count after a change, in milliseconds. Range is from 1 to 600000.
spf-hold—Minimum hold time between two back to back SPF computations, in milliseconds. Range is from 1 to 600000.
spf-max-pause—Maximum hold up time between two back to back SPF computations, in milliseconds. Range is 1 to 600000.
For more data on the OSPF Throttling highlight, allude to OSPF Shortest Path First Throttling.
Q94) Are the multicast IP delivers mapped to MAC-level multicast addresses?
Answer: OSPF sends all notices utilizing multicast tending to. Aside from Token Ring, the multicast IP delivers are mapped to MAC-level multicast addresses. Cisco maps Token Ring to MAC-level communicate addresses.
Q95) Does the Cisco OSPF execution bolster IP TOS-based directing?
Answer: Cisco OSPF just backings TOS 0. This implies switches course all parcels on the TOS 0 way, wiping out the need to compute nonzero TOS ways.
Q96) Does the balance list subcommand work for OSPF?
Answer: The counterbalance list direction does not work for OSPF. It is utilized for separation vector conventions, for example, Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), and RIP adaptation 2.
Q97) Can an OSPF default be begun into the framework dependent on outer data on a switch that does not itself have a default?
Answer: OSPF creates a default just on the off chance that it is arranged utilizing the direction default-data begin and if there is a default organize in the case from an alternate procedure. The default course in OSPF is 0.0.0.0. In the event that you need an OSPF-empowered switch to create a default course regardless of whether it doesn’t have a default course itself, utilize the direction default-data start dependably.
Q98) When I issue the show ip ospf neighbor order, for what reason do I just observe FULL/DR and FULL/BDR, with every single other neighbor demonstrating 2-WAY/DROTHER?
Answer: To decrease the measure of flooding on communicate media, for example, Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring, the switch turns out to be full with just assigned switch (DR) and reinforcement assigned switch (BDR), and it demonstrates 2-WAY for every single other switch.
Preferred standpoint: Lower cost, unwavering quality, enhanced execution, diminished handling time, adaptability are the benefits of Distributed preparing.
Q99) What does BADSEQNUM in the %OSPF-5-NBRSTATE: ospf-101  Process 101, Nbr 10.253.5.108 on Vlan7 02 from FULL to EXSTART, BADSEQNUM OSPF log message mean?
Answer: This message is identified with the DBD trade process, which utilizes a grouping number for the synchronization of the database. For reasons unknown an awful grouping number was accounted for in the DBD parcel. This may happen as a result of transient conditions, which incorporates bundle misfortune or parcel defilement.
Q100) What is difference between TCP and UDP protocols?
Answer: TCP is reliable protocol and UDP is unreliable protocol. In general TCP give reliability and acknowledgement for packet delivered while UDP does not provide acknowledgement.
Q101) What all layers we have in OSI model?
Answer: we have 7 layers in OSI Model ( application , presentation, session, transport, network, data , physical). Upeer layes are grouped as ( application , presentation, session) middle layer network while Lower layer grouped as ( Network, data, physical)
Q102) What all layers we have in TCP/ip protocols
Answer: We have 4 layers in TCP protocol. Taken reference from Osi model. Names as Appplcation , transport, internet , network. We are following TCP/Ip globally.
Q103) What is function of physical layer?
Answer: Physical layer convert electrical signal into binary form as 1 or 0. This is sort of physical connection with two device with CAT 5 cable.
Q104) What is function of data link layer?
Answer: Here Physcial address of device is called as Mac address received from device. It provide layer 2 connectivity to any network.
Q105) What is function of network layer?
Answer: It Provide unique identifier in term of ip address as to enable communication between two devices. Ip address is of 32 bits. It perform layer 3 functionality
Q106) What Is function of transport layer ?
Answer: Transport layer provides two type of facility as TCP or UDP port. A per reqirement of communication we can get services like this.
Q107) What is function of Session layer?
Answer: Session layer establish Session between Two devices.
Q108) What is function of Transport layer?
Answer: It provide Facility to Recived data from application to encrypt or decrypt the data. It provide fragmentation of data packet.
Q109) What is function of application layer?
Answer: It is medium between Network or user. User Directly have access of Application like service as TFTP, FTP, DNS, DHCP
Q110) What all networking devices we use ?
Answer: We generally use Router, Switches, Firewall, Load balancer
Q111) What is broadcast domain?
Answer: We user send some request if everyone is listening then it is term as broadcast domain. Every user will get packet but only specific user is able to reply to request.
Q112) What is collision domain?
Answer: Collision domain mean we use Network in which data transmission and receiving happening at same time. Packet get corrpted. This technology maily used in Hub devices.
Q113) What is half duplex and full duplex?
Answer: When we are doing either transmission or receiving then it is called half duplex while full duplex means that when transmission and receiving happens on same time
Q114) What is Vlan?
Answer: Vlan is a virtual Lan. In layman language it is switch inside switch. We segregate our switch port into different Vlan to divide single broad cast domain into different broadcast domain.
Q115) can we communicate between two vlan?
Answer: We can communicate between two Vlan with the help of Router. Without router we can’t do communication between two VLan.
Q116) How to create Vlan
Answer: COnfig# Vlan 200
Config(vlan-if) # description management
Q117) By default in which Vlan all Ports lies?
Answer: By default all port of switch is part of native vlan. By-default Native is 1.
Q118) What is purpose to create separate Vlan?
Answer: Purpose to create different vlan is to separate single broadcast domain into many different broadcast domain. Link we can make four port part of engineering deptt or 4 port of IT depptt.
Q119) What is VTP
Answer: VTP is vlan tracking protocol. We generally create vlan on server and all created vlan replicate to client.
Q120) What all mode of VTP we have?
Answer: We have 3 mode of VTP
It reduce Administration overhead to create same vlan in 30 device simontansiouly.
Q121) Can we create Multiple VTP server?
Answer: Yes we can create multiple server in VTP domain.
Q122) Condition to configure VTP?
Answer: VTP domain and VTP password should be same.
Q123) Can Transprent Mode participate in VTP process?
Answer: No , Transparent does not participate in VTP process. But it passes the vlaan information to client act as transit device.
Q124) What is vlan.dat file?
Answer: Vlan.dat file contain all information of created vlan. If we delete vlan.dat file from Device then we will lose all instance of vlan.
Q125) What do you mean by STP ?
Answer: Spanning tree protocol is used to avoid loop in switching environment. By this mechanism we we block port to avoid loop in switches.
Q126) What all types of STP we use?
Answer: STP (spanning tree protocol)
RSPT ( Rapid spanning tree protocol)
CST(common spaning tree protocol)
PVST (per vlan spanning tree protocol)
RPVST (Rapid per vlan spanning tree protocol)
Q127) What is all states of port we have in STP?
Q128) How to elect Root bridge in STP?
Answer: STP elect Root bridge based on Priority and mac address. Lower the priority wins the race. If we have same priority configured then we have other option as MAC address as tie breaker.
Q129) What is designated and root port?
Answer: All prot on Root bridge is called Designated port. Which send BPDU from Root bridge. While port directly connected to other switch is root port. It Receive BPDU sent by Root bridge.
Q130) What is RSTP?
Answer: Rapid spanning tree protocol I advance version of STP. As STP converge time I too low. As per Rapid spanning tree we get fast convergence.
Q131) What is CST?
Answer: It is common spanning tree protocol. It create one instance of spanning tree.
Q132) What Is PVST ?
Answer: Per-vlan spanning tree protocol. We can utilized our Distribution router by creating per vlan STP. Every vlan have its own instance of STP.
Q133) What is Routing ?
Answer: Routing is path to reach source to destination. It give entire view through with path our packet travel from source to detination.
Q134) What all Routing protocol we use?
Answer: We have two routing protocol
- IGP (interior gateway protocol)
- EGP ( exterior gateway protocol)
Q135) What all protocol comes in IGP?
Answer: We have 3 types of IGP
- Distance vector ( RIP )
- Link state ( OPF, ISIS)
- Hybrid distance vector ( Eirgp)
Q136) What is RIP?
Answer: RIP stand for Routing information protocol. It is classfull protocol as it send complete routing table every 30 min. It have 2 version. RIP ver 1 and RIP ver 2. IT is outdated protocol.
Q137) What is Eigrp ?
Answer: Eigrp stands for Enhanced interior gateway protocol. IT have both distance vector and link state functionality. It was cisco priority protocol. EIRGP protocol number is 88
Q138) what is multicast ip for OSPF
Answer: 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168
Q139) What is purpose of Area in ospf?
Answer: It reduce overhead on routing table and we can implement Area as per customer demand.
Q140) What all LSA we have is OSPF?
Answer: We have 7 LSA
- LSA 1 router LSA
- LAS 2 network LSA
- LSA 3 ssummary LSA
- ASBR summary LSA
- ASBR LSA
- Reserved for Future Use
- LSA 7 NSSA LSA
Q141) What are condition for neibour ship for OSPF?
- AREA type
- hello/dead interval
Q142) What Is backbone area ?
Answer: Area 0 in Ospf I called as Backbone area as to avoid loop mechanism every are must pass traffic from backbone area.
Q143) What is ABR / ASBR ?
Answer: ABR is Area boarder router and ASBR is autonomus system boarder router.
Q144) What is unicast , multicast and broad cast ?
Unicast mean one way communication. Device A sending packet to device B.
Multicast when a group of people want update on multicast ip.
Broadcast when all device receive packet is called broadcast.
Q145) How to configure telnet password in router ?
Answer: Confg #Lin VTY 0
Confg #Password Cisco
Q146) How to config IP on interface ?
Answer: Confg # interface fa 1/0
Confg(int-if) #ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
Confg #no shutdown
Q147) How to configure osp ?
Answer: Confg #Router ospf 10
Netowrk 192.168.1.1 0.0.0.255 area 0
Q148) What is the first layer of the OSI model called?
Answer: Physical Layer
Q149) What are the 2 protocols of the transport layer?
Answer: TCP and UDP
Q150)Where are public IP addresses used?
Q151) What does ARP stand for?
Answer: Address Resolution Protocol
Q152) Which layer protocol is NTP?
Answer: Application Layer
Q153) What are the various RIP loop prevention technologies?
Answer: Split Horizon, Route poisoning, Holddown timer
154) What is the multicast IP RIPv2 uses to send routing updates?
Q155) What is the maximum hop count for RIP?
Q156) Which EIGRP table stores the best routes?
Answer: Routing table
Q157) Once how many seconds EIGRP WAN interfaces sends Hello?
Q158) What are the 2 components an SNMP managed network consists of?
Answer: Network management station and Agent
Q159) What is the command to see only connected routes in a router’s routing table?
Answer: Show ip route connected
Q160) How many packets are used by EIGRP’s RTP protocol?
Q161) What does OSPF stand for?
Answer: Open shortest path first
Q162) What is the administrative distance for EIGRP?
Q163) Give an example for a link state routing protocol?
Q164) Is OSPF a Cisco proprietary protocol?
Q165) What is the protocol used by network devices to find out the MAC address of neighboring devices?
Q166) All ports of a switch by default are in which VLAN?
Answer: VLAN 1
Q167) Which is Cisco proprietary’s VLAN tagging protocol?
Answer: Inter-Switch link
Q168) What are the three types of NAT
Answer: Static NAT, Dynamic NAT and Port address translation
Q169) What are the different types of IPv6 addresses?
Answer: Unicast, Anycast and Multicast addresses
Q170) What are the different types of memory on a Cisco device?
Answer: RAM, ROM, Flash and NVRAM
Q171) Which memory stores the IOS software image?
Answer: Flash memory
Q172) Where is the startup config file stored on a Cisco device?
Q173) Can a Cisco router be configured as a DHCP server?
Q174) Which layer in the OSI stack does the DHCP belong to?
Answer: Application layer
Q175) What is the command used to configure a Cisco router as an NTP server?
Answer: Ntp master
Q176) Which protocol is used by Cisco devices to discover information about the locally attached Cisco equipment?
Q177) What is the command to view the contents of the flash memory?
Answer: Show flash
Q178) How do you check the IOS version running on a Cisco device?
Answer: Using the show version command
Q179) What are the three packets which make up the 3-way handshake process?
Answer: SYN, SYN/ACK, ACK
Q180) What is the Ethernet standard?
Answer: IEEE 802.3
Q181) How many bits long is a MAC address?
Q182) How do you find the MAC address of a computer?
Answer: By using the ipconfig /all command
Q183) A hub is an example of which layer device?
Answer: Physical layer
Q184) What does “C” denote in a routing table?
Answer: Directly connected networks
Q185) To which class does 192.168.1.1 IPv4 address belong to?
Answer: Class C
Q186) What are the different protocols http uses for encryption?
Answer: TLS or SSL
Q187) Which port does FTP use to send control commands?
Q188) Which port does TFTP use to send data?
Answer: UDP 69
Q189) What is the length of an IPv4 header?
Answer: 20 bytes
Q190) Which type of cable is used to connect 2 computers together to transfer data?
Answer: Crossover cable
Q191) To which layer does the NetBIOS protocol belong to is the OSI model?
Answer: Session layer
Q192) What is the APIPA range?
Answer: 254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254
Q193) What is the combination of IP address and a port number called?
Q194) What is the ethernet broadcasts on which ARP request packets are sent on?
Q195) What are the port numbers the DHCP server uses?
Answer: UDP 67 and 68
Q196) What is the prefix of an IPv6 link-local address?
Q197) What are the types of Ethernet cables?
Answer: Straight-through and crossover
Q198) What is TCP/IP Layer in OSI Layer?
Answer: TCP/IP Layer in OSI is used to mainly transport packets from one machine to another machine via seven types of layer. These seven types of layers are:
- Application layer: ex: Browser in the operating system
- Presentation layer: It will create a session for a particular packet
- Session Layer: Session time out
- Transport Layer
- Network layer
- Data link Layer
- Physical layer
Q199) What is the main difference between switch and router?
Answer: Switch can pass single broadcast domain whereas router can pass Multicast or Unicast address. Switch sends Frames and Router sends Packet or IP address.
Q200) What is Broadcast address in Networking?
Answer: FFFF:FFFF:FFFF:FFFF –MAC 255.255.255.255
Q201) Why do we need a subnet mask in Networking?
Answer: The main reason for having a subnet mask in Networking is to avoid IP wastage in the Network.
Q202) What is Ethernet channel? Which protocols are used in the Etherchannel?
Answer: Ethernet Channel increases the bandwidth which is done by combining the links. PAGP AND LACP are the protocols used in Ethernet Channel.
Q203) What you meant by Single broadcast?
Answer: Single broadcast is the address which has same subnets.
Q204) What is Subnet Mask?
Answer: Subnet Mask is used for identifying network portion.
Q205) What is the range of public IP address?
Answer: The range of public IP Address is as follows:
Q206) What is Private address range and Class?
|10.0.0.0 —-10.255.255.255||Class A IP address|
|172.16.0.0—172.31.255.255||Class B IP Address|
|192.168.0.0 —192.168.255.255||Class C IP Address|
Q207) Enlist the types of Subnettinng.
Answer: The types of Subnetting are as follows:
VLSM- Variable Length Subnet Mask
FLSM-Fixed Length Subnet Mask
Q208) What is VLAN?
Answer: VLAN is used to isolate the network or it can divide the network into single broadcast to multiple broadcasts.
Q209) What is VTP?
Answer: VTP can be used for transferring VLAN information from one switch to other switches.
Q210) What are the different types of VTP Version?
Answer: The different types of VTP version are:
- VTP v1
- VTP v2
- VTP v3
Q211) What is the difference between VTP Version 1, VTP version 2 and VTP version 3?
Answer: VTP version 2 is same as VTP version 1 only difference comes with the support of Token Ring Topology. VTP Version 3 can support Extended VLAN 0-4094, Private VLAN, and MSTP.
Q212) What do you mean by Revision number in VTP?
Answer: Revision number is used for changing or editing in the VLAN, it will be incremented by 1. For the security reason while adding new switches we should always check the revision number.
Q213) What is the use of STP?
Answer: To avoid loop in network we generally take the help of STP.
Q214) How to elect Root Bridge in switch?
Answer: These are the steps to choose Root Bridge in switch:
- Lowest priority value
- Lowest MAC address
- Lowest port in the switch
Q215) What are the various states in STP?
Answer: The various states in STP are Listening, Learning, Forwarding, Blocking and Disable.
Q216) What is Root Port?
Answer: Best path to reach from Root bridge to the destination is known as Root Port.
Q217) Define the term Designated port?
Answer: The port which is sending the BPDU packet is called Designated port.
Q218) What is BPDU Guard?
Answer: When an attacker is trying to send a BPDU packet with ‘0’ priority values by any tool then port will consider it as error invisible state. This is the working of BPDU Guard.
Q219) What is Uplink fast?
Answer: When the root port undergoes down alternate link up without any delay it is known as Uplink fast.
Q220) What is the port number used for FTP, TELNET and SMTP?
Answer: These are the port number for their corresponding protocols:
Q221) What is native VLAN?
Answer: Untagged VLANS are knows as native VLANS.
Q222) What is the default priority value for the switch?
Answer: The default priority value for the switch is 32768.
Q223) What is the range of Switch priority value?
Answer: The range of switch priority value is 0-614040.
Q224) By how much value the priority is incremented?
Answer: The priority is incremented by 4096.
Q225) What is redundancy?
Answer: Redundancy can be explained as if one network device goes down then the backup will work without any delay.
Q226) Which protocol is used in redundancy?
Answer: The protocols used in Redundancy are HSRP, VRRP and GLBP.
Q227) What is active and standby in HSRP?
Answer: Active: The Router that owns the virtual IP and MAC address is in active. Standby: It is the backup for active router.
Q228) What is PREMPT in HSRP?
Answer: If the active router goes down then backup router will become active and when the active router comes up by PREMPT command it will remain in active state.
Q228) What is the multicast address which is used in HSRP?
Answer: The multicast addresses which is used in HSRP is 22.214.171.124.
Q229) What do you mean by RSTP?
Answer: RSTP is CISCO proprietary, used for fast convergence.
Q230) Define the term MSTP?
Answer: MSTP is open standard for fast convergence and to avoid load.
Q231) What is AD value of static routing, RIP, EIGRP AND OSPF?
Answer: Value of static routing, RIP, EIGRP AND OSPF are:
- 90 EIGRP INTERNAL
- 170 EIGRP EXTERNAL
- OSPF 110
Q232) What is the multicast address for RIP?
Answer: The multicast address for RIP is 126.96.36.199.
Q233) what is the multicast address for EIGRP?
Answer: The multicast address for EIGRP is 188.8.131.52.
Q234)What is the multicast address OSPF?
Answer: The multicast addresses for OSPF are 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11.
Q235) Why OSPF uses two multicast address?
Answer: OSPF uses two multicast address for DR and BDR communication and other router communications.
Q236) What are the types Network?
Answer: The types of Network are:
- Point to point
- Broad cast
- Non broadcast
Q236) What is EIGRP stuck in active state?
Answer: When successor goes down there is no feasible successor to reset the connection it will take 3 min. This is called EIGRP stuck in active state.
Q237) Write about the difference between OSPF AND EIGRP.
Answer: OSPF is link state routing protocol whereas the EIGRP is an advanced vector protocol.
Q238) What is the role of successor in EIGRP?
Answer: Best path to reach the destination is decided by the successor in EIGPR.
Q239) What is Feasible successor in EIGRP?
Answer: Feasible successor in EIGRP is the backup path for the successor.
Q240) What is meant by feasibility condition EIGRP?
Answer: FD of the Successor is greater than AD value of the other path. This is called feasibility condition in EIGRP.
Q241) What is AS?
Answer: AS: Routers having same administration and policy are in same autonomous system and it indicates the same number.
Q242) What are the various states in the EIGRP?
Answer: The states in EIGRP are as follows:
Q243) What are the types LSA in ospf
Answer: The types of LSA are 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 which are mostly used.
Q244) What is Router ID in OSPF and why is it used?
Answer: Router ID is used to identify the routers and to avoid loop in the OSPF network.
Q245) What is Root Guard?
Answer: Root guard is a feature which receives BPDU in the port it will consider as an inconsistent state.
Q246) What is the default hold-down timer for EIGRP?
Answer: The default hold-down timer for EIGRP is 15s.
Q247) Which router generates LSA type 7 in OSPF?
Answer: Router that generates LSA type 7 in OSPF is ASBR.
Q248) What LSA type does the DR generate is OSPF?
Answer: LSA type 2 is the LSA type which DR generate is OSPF.
Q249) What is the multicast IP address of the DR is listening on?
Answer: The multicast IP address of the DR is listening on is 18.104.22.168.
Q250) What is a Router ID with respect to OSPF?
Answer: Unique ID for the Router in the OSPF topology is known as Router ID.
Q251) What is the ratio of Hello timer to Dead timer in the OSPF topology?
Answer: 1:4 is the ratio of Hello timer to Dead timer in the OSPF topology.
Q252) In an OSPF topology what is the numbering given to the backbone area?
Answer: Area 0 is the numbering given to the backbone area in an OSPF topology.
Q253) What is the default priority of a router running OSPF?
Answer: 1 is the default priority of a router running OSPF.
Q254) What is the protocol number for OSPF?
Answer: The protocol number for OSPF is 89.
Q255) What will a DROTHER router state is in a BMA OSPF network?
Answer: A DROTHER router state will be in 2-way in a BMA OSPF network.
Q256) Can a router within the Backbone area be configured with OSPF summarization?
Answer: Router within the Backbone area can’t be configured with OSPF summarization.
Q257) Which type of LSA is not allowed in a Stub OSPF area?
Answer: Type 5 of LSA is not allowed in a Stub OSPF area.
Q258) What is CEF?
Answer: CEF stands for Cisco Express Forwarding.
Q259) What is the External AD value for EIGRP?
Answer: The External AD value for EIGRP is 170
Q260) What is the timer value for EIGRP SIA Reply?
Answer: The timer value for EIGRP SIA Reply is 1.5minutes.
Q261) What is the significance of AD value 5 in EIGRP?
Answer: EIGRP Summary.
Q262) If your AS is a transit AS, IBGP should be configured on all the routers within the AS. True or False?
Q263) What is BGP’s loop prevention mechanism?
Answer: If you see your own AS number in the AS path you don’t accept it since you have a loop.
Q264) What is BGP split horizon?
Answer: When a BGP router receives an update from another internal BGP router, then it will not forward this information to another internal BGP router, it is called BGP split horizon.
Q265) Which BGP attribute is CISCO proprietary?
Answer: Weight is the BGP attribute of CISCO proprietary.
Q266) What is the default Local Preference value of a BGP router?
Answer: 100 is the default Local Preference value of a BGP router.
Q267) What is the multicast address for RIPnG?
Answer: FF02::9 is the multicast address for RIPnG.
Q268) What is the multicast IPv6 address for EIGRP?
Answer: FF02::10 is the multicast IPv6 address for EIGRP.
Q269) What protocol does DMVPN use for security?
Answer: IPSec is the DMVPN used for security.
Q270) Where is the VLAN configuration stored on a CISCO switch?
Answer: The VLAN configuration is stored on a CISCO switch in “VLAN.DAT” file.
Q271) What is the difference between ISL and Dot1q?
Answer: ISL is a CISCO proprietary.
Q272) What is the native VLAN ID by default on a CISCO switch?
Answer: VLAN 1 the native VLAN ID by default on a CISCO switch.
Q273) What are the different trunking protocols?
Answer: Different trunking protocols are ISL and DOT1q.
Q274) What is the VLAN range supported by VTP version 3?
Answer: 1-4094 is the VLAN range supported by VTP version 3.
Q275) Does VTP version 2 support Private VLANs?
Answer: No, VTP version 2 doesn’t support Private VLANs.
Q276) What is the port in a Private VLAN which can communicate with all other Ports?
Answer: Promiscuous Port the port in a Private VLAN which can communicate with all other Ports.
Q277) What is the forward delay timer for STP?
Answer: 15s is the forward delay timer for STP.
Q278) STP elects the root bridge on a basis of what?
Answer: Bridge priority is the basis to select Root Bridge.
Q279) What is the STP cost of a 1000Mbit link?
Answer: The STP cost of a 1000Mbit link is 4.
Q280) What is the BPDU timer value?
Answer: The BPDU timer value is 2s.
Q281) How many seconds is the blocking period of a switch port?
Answer: 20s is the blocking period of a switch port.
Q282) What is port fast?
Answer: Switch port without the forward delay and blocking timer is known as port fast.
Q283) What is the Aging timer of the MAC address table?
Answer: The Aging timer of the MAC address table is 300s.
Q284) With what does Backbone fast deals with?
Answer: Backbone fast deals with indirect link failure.
Q285) What is the CISCO proprietary protocol for link aggregation?
Answer: PAgP is the CISCO proprietary protocol for link aggregation.
Q286) What is the standard protocol for link aggregation?
Answer: LACP is the standard protocol for link aggregation.
Q287) What is the multicast IP for HSPRv1?
Answer: 22.214.171.124 is the multicast IP for HSPRv1.
Q288) What is the multicast IP for HSRPv2?
Answer: 126.96.36.199 is the multicast IP for HSRPv2.
Q289) What is the virtual MAC address range for HSRPv2?
Answer: The virtual MAC address range for HSRPv2 is 0000.0c9f.fxxx.
Q290) Are HSRPv1 and v2 compatible?
Answer: HSRPv1 and v2 are not compatible.
Q291) What are the different load balancing methods for VRRP?
Answer: The different load balancing methods for VRRP are as follows: Round-Robin, Host-dependant and weighted.
Q292) Which protocol is used for Load balancing and high availability?
Answer: The protocol used for Load balancing and high availability is GLBP.
Q293) What is AAA?
Answer: AAA stands for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting.
Q294) What is the default value for RIP holddown timer?
Answer: The default value for RIP holddown timer is 180s.
Q295) What protocol does EIGRP use for reliability?
Answer: RTP (Reliable Transport Protocol) is the protocol which EIGRP uses for reliability.
Q296) State the two types of address available.
Answer: The two types of address available are:
- IPV4 (Internet Protocol Version 4)
- IPV6 (Internet Protocol Version 6)
Q297) What is the Loop Address used for local testing purpose?
Answer: The Local Loop Address used for local testing purpose is 127.0.0.1
Q298) Expand OSI.
Answer: OSI is the short form of Open System Interconnection.
Q299) Enlist the major functions of Transport Layer.
Answer: The major functions of Transport layer are as follows:
- Segment Fragmentation
- Numbering Segment
- Multi Tasking
- Flow control
Q300) What do you mean by DHCP?
Answer: DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is based on the DORA concept.
Q301) What are the two types of cables?
Answer: The two types of cables are:
- Straight Cable
- Cross Cable
Q302) Expand the term CDP.
Answer: CDP stands for CISCO Discovery Protocol.
Q303) What are the two types of Routes available?
Answer: The two types of routes are Static Route and Dynamic Route.
Q304) What do you mean by Distance Vector?
Answer: Distance vector is the protocol used for sending Periodic updates after every 30 seconds.
Q305) What is the Administrative distance of RIP?
Answer: The Administrative distance of RIP is 120.
Q306) What is the Administrative distance of OSPF?
Answer: The Administrative distance of OSPF is 110.
Q307) What is SWITCH?
Answer: SWITCH is the process to use the hardware of MAC address for understanding.
Q308) Name the two ports of Switches.
Answer: The two ports of Switches are:
- Access Port
- Trunk Port
Q309) What does VTP stands for?
Answer: VTP stands for Virtual Trunk Protocol.
Q310) What are the types of VTP?
Answer: The types of VTP are:
- SERVER MODE
- CLIENT MODE
- TRANSPARENT MODE
Q311) What do you mean by STP?
Answer: STP is the short form of Spanning Tree Protocol, which is used to understand the Loop Address.
Q312) Expand the term EUI.
Answer: EUI stands for Extended Unique Identifier.
Q313) Define the term ACL.
Answer: ACL stands for Access List Control. It is the list of commands used to filter the packets in a router.
Q314) What are the types of ACL?
Answer: The types of ACL are as follows:
- STANDARD ACL
- EXTENDED ACL
- NAMED ACL
Q315) Define the term Frame Relay.
Answer: Frame Relay: It is a type of Packet Switching technology used when there are two or more routers in a single interface.
Q316) Expand the term LMI.
Answer: LMI stands for Local Management Interface.
Q317) Expand the terms PAP and CHAP.
Answer: PAP stands for Password Authentication Protocol.
CHAP stands for Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol.
Q318) Write the Router command used for displaying the RAM contents.
Answer: The Router command used for displaying the RAM contents is-
SHOW RUN/SHOW RUNNING –CONFIG
Q319) Write the command used for displaying the NVRAM contents.
Answer: The Router command used for displaying the NVRAM contents is-
SHOW START/SHOW START –CONFIG
Q320) What do you mean by the term APIPA?
Answer: APIPA stands for Automatic Private IP Addressing. The range of APIPA is from 169.254.0.1 to 188.8.131.52.
Q321) What do you mean by the term SYSLOG?
Answer: SYSLOG is used for storing log files for popular servers.
Q322) Write the expanded form of NTP.
Answer: NTP stands for Network Time Protocol.
Q323) What is SNMP?
Answer: SNMP is a Network Management Application which runs inside the management service i.e. MIB (Management Information Base).
Q324) Write the expanded form of OSPF.
Answer: OSPF stands for Open Shortest Path First. Secondly Routing Tables is populated.
Q325) What are the major functions of SNMPV3?
Answer: The major functions of SNMPV3 are Authentication, Encryption and Message Integrity.
Q326) What are the ways to choose DR in OSPF?
Answer: These are the criteria for choosing DR in OSPF:
- Highest Priority
- Highest Router ID
- Highest IP Address
Q327) What do you mean by BPDU GUARD?
Answer: BPDU Guard is used for protecting the Switch port which is using the Port fast.
Q328) What are the major states in Switch?
Answer: The major states in a Switch are as follows:
Q329) What are the two types of protocols used in Ethernet Channel?
Answer: The two types of protocols used in Ethernet Channel are PAGP (Port Aggregation Protocol) and LACP (Link Aggregation Protocol).
Q330) What are the modes in LACP?
Answer: There are two types of modes in LACP i.e. Active mode and Passive mode.
Q331) What are the modes in PAGP?
Answer: There are two types of modes in PAGP i.e. Auto mode and Desirable mode.
Q332) Expand the term HSRP?
Answer: HSRP stands for HOT Standby Router Protocol.
Q333) Expand the term VLSM?
Answer: VLSM stands for Variable Length Subnet Mask.
Q334) What is the subnet mask of /28?
Answer: The subnet mask of /28 is 255.255.255.240.
Q335) Which router command enables IPV6?
Answer: The router command used for enabling IPV6 is UNICASTING ROUTING.
Q336) What is Administrative Distance?
Answer: Administrative Distance is used for finding a trusted routing protocol.
Q337) Expand the term ISATAP.
Answer: ISATAP stands for Intra Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol.
Q338) Expand the term EIGRP.
Answer: EIGRP stands for Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol.
Q339) When Network Congestion does occur?
Answer: Network Congestion takes place when two users try to use the same bandwidth.
Q340) What do you mean by the term Windows Networking Terms?
Answer: Windows networking terms refer to the number of segments that are allowed to the destination.
Q341) Expand the term LAN.
Answer: LAN is the short form of Local Area Network.
Q342) What are the different types of memories in CISCO Router?
Answer: The different types of memories in CISCO Router are:
- Flash Memory
Q343) Define the term BOOTP.
Answer: BOOTP is the protocol to boot disk less workstations connected to a network.
Q344) What is 100 BASEFX?
Answer: It is the Ethernet to make use of Fiber optic cables in the main transmission medium.
Q345) Expand the term MTU.
Answer: MTU stands for Maximum Transmission Control Unit.
Q346) Write the states in HSRP.
Answer: The states in HSRP are as follows:
Q347) What type of port is in the STP?
- Root port
- Designated Port
- Blocking port
Q348) What is a Window in networking terms?
Answer: A Window alludes to the quantity of sections that is permitted to be sent from source to goal before an affirmation is sent back.