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Chef Interview Questions and Answers

Chef Interview Questions and Answers

September 7th, 2019

Chef Interview Questions and Answers

In case you’re searching for Chef Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced or Freshers, you are at the correct place. Additionally, our Chef Online Training will give comprehensive knowledge about the different forms of automation solutions and version control system like a private chef, hosted chef, and source chef. Before deployment chef integrates with other tools like vagrant, Test kitchen, and food critic to test the script. The Chef is used in companies where there is a need for cloud infrastructure automation. The Chef Online Course covers the syllabus such as standalone chef, public chef, hosted chef, workstation setup, convergence, node objects, data bags, execute resource and directories. As chef is used by companies with big size infrastructure the expectation is high during the interviews for which we have gifted the students with the best Chef Interview question and answers.
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Best Chef Interview Questions and Answers

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Q1) Define the chef?

Answer: The chef is a well-structured, powerful management tool that is used to transfer the infrastructure into codes. With chef, you can easily develop and use the scripts for automation and IT processes.

Q2) What are the primary components of Chef?

Answer: The architecture of the chef tool can be easily broken down in the following components:

  • Chef node
  • Chef server
  • Chef workstation

Q3) What is the chef node?

Answer: The chef node is a hosting element of the chef tool that is managed through the chef-client and responsible to share data across the network.

Q4) What is the chef server?

Answer: The chef server is referred to as the center of the chef tool is responsible for storing necessary data and configuring nodes.

Q5) Define chef workstation?

Answer: You can consider the chef workstation as the modifying host for the data and cookbooks.

Q6) Describe the chef resource and its functions?

Answer: The chef resource is a crucial aspect of the infrastructure which is used to install and run a service. It can be used to:

  • Describe a configured item
  • Choose resources like services, package, and template
  • List down the properties of the resources
  • Group the resources into recipes

Q7) What is the importance of the chef nodes?

Answer: DevOps professionals often consider chef nodes as the virtual constituent that is an integral of the infrastructure. Chef nodes help to execute any resource.

Q8) What is a recipe in the chef tool?

Answer: The recipe in the chef is often described as a group of resources. The recipe contains all the information required to configure an aspect of the system.

Q9) Write down the functions of the recipe?

Answer: The recipe is used to perform the following function:

  • Install and manage components of software
  • Deploy applications in chef
  • Execute other recipes in the system
  • Manage system files

Q10) Describe the difference between a recipe and cookbook in the chef workstation?

Answer: When developers group down resources together they receive the recipe which is useful when configuring and implementing policies. Now, when they group down recipes what they receive is the cookbook. The concept is similar to the food cookbook and recipes.

Q11) Define step by step process to update the chef cookbook?

Answer: Here is the step-by-step process you need to follow while updating the chef cookbook:
Step 1: Go to the workstation to run the knife SSH
Step 2: Run both chef-client and knife SSH directly on the server
Step 3: You can consider and utilize the chef-client as a daemon to restart the service

Q12) What will happen if the action is not defined in chef resources?

Answer: If the developer did not define a particular action for the chef resource, then it will automatically choose a default action for itself.

Q13) Describe the run-list in the chef?

Answer: The run list can be described as a list of roles and responsibilities of the recipes in an order to define which recipe needs to run in which order. It is significant to have run-list when you are dealing with multiple cookbooks in the chef.

Q14) What are the benefits of using a run-list?

Answer: There are several benefits of using run-list including:

  • Ensure recipes are running in the same order as specified
  • It specifies the node on which recipes will run
  • Transfer the workstation to chef-server

Q15) What instructions do you need to perform bootstrap in chef?

Answer: To perform or order bootstrap in the chef, you need:

  • Public IP address or hostname
  • Account Id and password to log into the node
  • You can use the keyword-authentication instead of ID and password

Q16) Do you know what DK is in chef?

Answer: As a beginner, you must know that DK is the server station in the chef that is used to interact with the system. There are pre-installed tools in DK which makes interaction much easier and effective.

Q17) What is chef repository and why do we use it?

Answer: As a developer, you can consider the chef repository as a collection of cookbooks, data bags, environments, roles and more. You can also sync the chef repository with the version control system to further enhance the overall performance.

Q18) Showcase your knowledge about the test kitchen in chef?

Answer: The test kitchen is the tool that is used to enable cookbooks on the server. It also helps in creating various virtual machines on the cloud.

Q19) What are the primary advantages of a test kitchen?

Answer: The key advantages of using the test kitchen are:

  • It allows you to use various virtualization providers that create virtual machines
  • It speeds up the overall development cycle
  • It helps you to run cookbooks on the server

Q20) Have you learned about the signature header? If yes, then explain it?

Answer: The signature header is crucial to validate the interaction that is created or exist between the chef server and node.

Q21) What is the role of SSL in chef?

Answer: It can be challenging to find out the right data has been accessed in a pile of servers and chef clients. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the SSL connection to make sure you have accessed the right data in the chef.

Q22) Describe the starter kit in chef?

Answer: The primary reason to use a starter kit to configure files in the chef tool. It is used to get the clear information for the configuration process.

Q23) What is chefDK?

Answer: In the tool, chefDK is the software development kit that is used to develop and test the cookbooks.

Q24) Does the chef use the ruby?

Answer: Yes, chef- the configuration tool is entirely written in the Ruby and leverages the pure domain-specific language.

Q25) What is the difference between Chef and Ansible?

Answer: Although both Ansible and Chef are popular configuration management tools they are far different than being similar. Both of them have different strengths, structures, benefits, and drawbacks. While configuration files are known as cookbooks in chef, they are known as a playbook in ansible. Chef operates on client-server and Ansible is agentless.

Q26) What is the source of truth? Define the chef’s source of truth?

Answer: Source of truth is the process of structuring information modules and data in a way that every data is edited at a single place. What actually differentiates chef from the ansible is the way how it handles the source of truth. Unlike ansible, the chef has its chef serve as the source of truth and the process includes deploying updated cookbooks on one or two servers.

Q27) What is the orchestration tool? Is chef orchestration tool?

Answer: The orchestration tool is often defined as a way to represent complex systems and models in the easiest manner. So, no, the chef is not an orchestration tool.

Q28) Describe one main difference between chef and puppet tool?

Answer: The key difference between chef and puppet is that Puppet is the set of tools while the chef is the Ruby DSL and set of configured tools.

Q29) Define the chef-repo?

Answer: Chef repo is a directory that is pre-installed in your chef workstation and used to store:

  • Data bags
  • Environments
  • Roles

Q30) Define the role of chef validator?

Answer: Chef validator can be defined as a process to analyze to ensure every request that is made from the client-server to the chef-server is authentic.

Q31) What do you understand by knife SSL check command in chef?

Answer: Knife SSL check is the subcommand that is leverage to validate the state of SSL certification and quickly respond to troubleshoot the issue.

Q32) What is data bags in chef?

Answer: Data bags are the variables that basically store the JSON data and can be easily accessible through the chef server.

Q33) Where do you store the cookbooks in the chef?

Answer: The cookbooks are basically stored in the bookshelf directory of chef which can be easily modified as per your needs.

Q34) What attributes represent in the chef?

Answer: Attributes in the chef are used at the first hand to represent the information of nodes.

Q35) What do you understand by the “chef template”?

Answer: Chef templates are the embedded templates that used to creates static files that consist of Ruby statements and expressions.

Q36) What is the collection of Resources in Chef?

Answer: A Recipe is used to define a special configuration and plans. A chef cookbook is the constitution of the recipes which are the necessary condition of nodes. Recipes include the details for all which are required to run, convert, and generate on the node.

Q37) What is called when a machine is handled by a Chef?

Answer: A node, it can be a physical, or cloud network, the virtual device in the data center handled by the central Chef server. Nodes are approved by the certificates which are generated on the node at the time of bootstrap. With the help of client-server nodes remains updated.

Q38) What is the custom template?

Answer: Omnibus installer is used by chef-full sharing. Where the selected node is running with the help of chef-full sharing is convenient for deploying the chef-client to the selected node. In some conditions, the custom template is needed.

Q39) What is the function of the chef-client?


  • To communicate with the central chef server.
  • To handle the intimal registration of the node with the central chef-server
  • For configuring it pulls down the Cookbooks to apply on the Node.
  • For fetching new configuration items it needs periodic polling of the central chef server.

Q40) What is used to specify the recipes?

Answer: The run-list to run and order where the recipe is being executed. To make sure the recipe is running in a similar order as specified. The node on the run-list should be completed and defined to move from the workstation to the Chef server and from the support of the administration.

Q41) Define Chef workstation?

Answer: Chef workstation contains all the things which help you to get ready and to apply and create the chef code and contains a strong testing harness known as a test kitchen. It combines numerous jar, VM, and cloud machinery frameworks to give an easy workflow. It is used to create, construct, examine and destruct ephemeral details to establish for the updates approval of the code of the chef.

Q42) What is made of Resources?

Answer: Chef code, it explains each structured project to achieve. The resources are described by the design to advise chefs about which action to be taken. And mechanically pick up platform appropriate action. Chef resources are constructed to run frequently.

Q43) Define Chef cookbooks?

Answer: Chef code is gathered in the desired definite artifacts known as cookbooks. Every cookbook is described as the arranged scheme and every important element to handle the scheme. It contains recipes, attributes, files, templates, metadata.rb.

Q44) What is used to create static files?

Answer: Chef templates are a fixed ruby template that is utilized for creating the static text files. Templates include Ruby’s definition and comments for handling structured documents. The template asset is to attach cookbooks templates to the recipes.

Q45) What is used to form the information modules and data?

Answer: Sources of truth is the method to form information modules and data to edit each data at an exclusive location. Chef servers are known as a source of truth and on the servers, the procedure contains installing the updated cookbooks.

Q46) Define Chef attribute?

Answer: A special detail of the node is called an attribute and Chef infra-client uses it for understanding the present condition of the node. Which condition of the node is at the end of the earlier chef infra client run. The attributes are described by the condition on a node, roles, environments, and policy files.

Q47) What is described as the arbitrary collection of the data?

Answer: It is chef data bags is used with cookbooks. It helps at the time when you do not want to hardcode or store the attributes in recipes and cookbooks. Chef data bags are the group of the organized data entries in the JSON file. It is an index in the Chef repository and uses the knife to generate on the server.

Q48) What is the directory of the workstation?

Answer: The chef-repo is known as the directory used to store the roles, data bags, environments, cookbooks like recipes, libraries, templates. The repo directory must adjust to the eversion control system. And every data is used as source code.

Q49) What is the reference language used by Chef?

Answer: Ruby is the reference language to describe the design which is in the cookbooks, recipes, and resources. These designs are used to install, organize, handle nodes over the web. It is the programming language to decide what to do for developing special recipes and resources.

Q50) What we require at the time f coding Chef?

Answer: Chef DK is considering as the package which includes every development tool to help in coding, examine and generating chef cookbooks. Chef DK contains chef-client to configure the nodes, Ohai to gather the profiling data, chef and knife used for creating chef cookbooks, test kitchen is used to examine the harness for frequent validation.

Q51) Define the Chef server?

Answer: The chef server is for arranging the data. It stocks the cookbooks and policies which are applicable for nodes, metadata of define every registered node is handled by the chef. The chef-client is used to know the chef server for arranging the details like the templates, recipes, and document allotment.

Q52) Explain run-list in chef?

Answer: Run-list is a managed list of roles and recipes to run in a definite order described in the run-list. The chef-client does not run twice if the recipe seems many times in the run-list. Nodes contain the run-list which is similar to the run-list handled by another node.

Q53) What is the chef-client?

Answer: The chef-client is a representative to runs narrowly on each node handled by the chef. It achieves every step for assembling every node with the condition described in the run-list at the time when the chef-client server is running.

Q54) What are bookshelf in chef?

Answer: A bookshelf is used by the chef-server To stock cookbooks, templates and the documents for achieving like a versioned repository. A fresh version of the cookbook is correlated with that is stored earlier at the time when a cookbook is transferred to the chef server.

Q55) How the workstation interacts with the contents?

Answer: With the help of the knife command-line tool is the method to interact with the contents of the directory of chef-repo with the chef server. It contains a combination to handle the roles, cookbooks, data bags, etc. The knife permits the range of suitable operations is expected on the server and nodes of the chef.

Q56) Define the test kitchen?

Answer: Test kitchen produces in a progressive environment on the workstation to generate, examine, and to repeat on the cookbooks before assigning the contents to the managed nodes. We can use this tool to run assimilation experiments against various objectives.

Q57) How to gather details concerning nodes for the chef-client?

Answer: With the help of Ohai. It is needed to available on each node and is deployed like the piece of the procedure of bootstrap. The information which is collected contains the web, use of memory, CPU data, kernel data, etc. to assist chef-client to set the condition of the node.

Q58) What are environments in Chef?

Answer: The chef environment continues to resemble the workflow of real life. It permits and keeps the node in the various list. And it describes the acts the node performs in the fleet. It also permits the customer to link environment and versioned cookbooks for getting the various attributes for various nodes.

Q59) What is the use of Chef in DevOps?

Answer: Chef is useful for handling and atomizing the framework. With the help od of different chef DevOps products such as Chef-server, Chef-client chef IT automation is concluded. It is the instrument to speed up the application of delivery and DevOps cooperation.

Q60) Define Knife bootstrap?

Answer: Knife bootstrap helps to generate a fresh node and connect to the server of the chef. Chef deploys all the things such as ohai at the time of bootstrapping a node. It is the command to install the chef infra client on the node.

Q61) What are unattended installs? 

Answer: It is used to install the chef infra client. It permits chef infra client to install by own without the help of SSH. Chef infra client should have the capacity of accurate of the chef server, able to arrange the run-list, should have a special name.

Q62) Explain chef-hatch-repo and chef-Trac-hacks?


  • chef-hatch-repo – It is a plugin to attach a knife plugin and vagrant provisioner to fire a chef server managed my own in a basic machine or Amazon Ec2.
  • chef-Trac-hacks – It attaches the capacity to refill the organized gap between Amazon internet services and the chef-client.

Q63) Mention the use of the Chef-Jenkins plugin and jclouds-chef plugin in chef?


  • Chef-Jenkins plugin – It attaches the capacity to utilize Jenkins to operate frequent installments and organizing the environment from the repository of Git.
  • jclouds-chef plugin – It attaches Java and Closure elements to the chef-server API REST API.

Q64) Define Handler DSL in Chef?

Answer: It is used to add a callback to an occasion. The connected callback is accomplished if the occasion appears at the time of the chef-client run.
For example – when delivering a message if the chef-client run declines the delivering the notification to chat function and the audit run declines.

Q65) What is used to run occasions at the starting of the chef-client run?

Answer: A start handler. It is downloaded at the beginning of a chef-client run by attaching the start handler for the framework in the client.rb file or by deploying the gem includes the start handler by utilizing the chef_gem asset in a recipe of the cookbook.

Q66) Explain the report handler?

Answer: WE utilize a report hander at the time of chef-client run benefits and declare back on the particular information of chef-client run. It is downloaded at the beginning of the chef-client run by attaching a recipe includes its asset to aa run-list of the node.

Q67) What is used to identify situations?

Answer: With the help of an exception handler, we can identify the situation occurs the chef-client runs to decline. It is downloaded at the beginning chef-client run. And by attaching a recipe includes the asset of chef_handler to the run-list of the node.

Q68) What is used to assemble examples in chef?

Answer: The kitchen converges subcommand is used to assemble one or numerous examples. Examples are constructed on the index of the platforms in the document of the kitchen.yml file. The procedure is to deploy the chef-client on an example utilizing the omnibus installer, uploading cookbooks document, etc.

Q69) Explain Berkfile in Chef?

Answer: It is used to define a group of origins and addiction requires to utilize a cookbook. And used in the combination in the command of berk. We can comfortably calculate on the cookbooks company to get securely in the workflow. In chef DK, we can find Berkfile.

Q70) What is the use of metadata.rb files?

Answer: Each cookbook needs an approach of metadata; this file is suited at the top of each cookbook catalog. The document advises the chef-server to support the cookbooks that are installed to every node accurately.