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Best Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and Answers
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Ethical Hacking Interview Questions and Answers
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Q1) Who is a Hacker?
Answer: A hacker is a person who exploits the weakness and shortfalls in a computer system or network. This process can contain engaging in illegal activities like stealing private information, accessing and altering network configuration, sabotaging the user interface of the computer OS.
Q2) What is Ethical Hacking?
Answer: Ethical hacking is the process of intruding a network or a system to identify the threats or vulnerabilities present in them. This process enables us to fix the weaker areas of the systems or network in order to protect them from persons who try to attack them.
Q3) What are the different types of Hackers?
Answer:In the process of hacking, there are many types of hackers and ways of doing it. Below are some of them:
- White Hat Hackers
- Black Hat Hackers
- Grey Hat Hackers
- Blue Hat Hackers
- Elite Hackers
- Intelligence Agencies
- Organized Crime.
Q4) What are the steps performed by Hackers to hack a System or Network?
Answer: The steps performed by hackers to intrude systems or network are as follows:
- Reconnaissance: In this process, the hacker tries to gather user information and finds weak spots if present.
- Scanning and Enumeration: In this process, the hacker uses the gathered information to examine and test the network.
- Gaining Access: After successfully completing the first and second phase, the hacker has complete access to the System and Network.
- Maintaining the Access: As the hacker has breached your security access in the previous stage, he now tries to install some scripts and sees that he has total access to the computer in the future.
- Clearing Tracks: In this stage, the hacker tries to clear all the tracks and tries to escape from getting detected by security personnel.
Q5) What is a Sniffing attack?
Answer: Sniffing is a procedure used by hackers to monitor and capture all the network packets with the help of sniffing tools. For example, this process is similar to tapping a phone call and listening to the ongoing conversation.
Q6) What the various sniffing tools available?
Answer: There are many sniffing tools available, all have their own features of gathering information and analyzing traffic. Some of the commonly used tools are listed below:
- MSN Sniffer
Q7) What is Spoofing?
Answer: Spoofing is the process of making communication by hiding the identity and acting as a trusted source. It is used to gain access to the target system and used to spread malware through harmful attachments or infected links. Spoofing can be done in many ways like:
- Phone calls
- IP address
- Domain Name System(DNS)
Q8) What is Phishing?
Answer: Phishing involves a process of contacting the target user by email, phone or text message and gathering sensitive information like credit card details, passwords, etc.
Q9) What is Ddos Attack?
Answer: “DDoS” or “Distributed Denial of Service” is explained as a malicious attempt to interrupt regular traffic of a targeted server or network by profusing the target with a flood of internet traffic.
Q10) What are the types of DDoS attacks?
Answer: DDos attacks are mainly of three types, they are:
- Application Layer Attacks
- Protocol Attacks
- Volumetric Attacks
Q11) What is SQL injection?
Answer: Sql injections is a web hacking technique used to destroy a database. It executes malicious SQL statements and controls a database server behind a web application. Hackers make use of these statements to bypass the security measures of the application.
Q12) What is the difference between Vulnerability Scanning and Penetration testing?
Answer: Both penetration testing and vulnerability scanning are powerful tools for monitoring and improving information security. Let’s see the difference between them:
|Vulnerability Scanning||Penetration Testing|
|This is an automated test||This is a manual test conducted by a security professional|
|Detects and reports Vulnerabilities||Exploits Vulnerabilities and determines the type of access|
|This is an instructive method||This is a non-instructive method|
|Need to be done continuously||Usually done once a year|
Q13) What is Footprinting?
Answer: Footprinting is a process of gathering user data and finding ways to penetrate a target system. A hacker tries to collects all the information about the organization, host, network and people before intruding a network or a system.
Q14) What is Network Enumeration?
Answer: Extracting usernames, network resources, machine names and services from a system is known as Network Enumeration. This stage is crucial for an attacker to send direct queries and gain more information about the target by creating an active connection to the system.
Q15) What are the different types of penetration testing tools?
Answer: Accessing the security of IT systems is carried out by penetration testing. Here are some of the important tools to perform it:
- Burp Suite
Q16) Why hackers use a keylogger?
Answer: Keylogger is a basic tool used by software companies to troubleshoot and check if there are any technical problems on their network or systems. But, hackers use these keyloggers to track the keystrokes of the user and gain access to their sensitive information.
Q17) What is RAnsweromware?
Answer: RAnsweromware is a type of malware, which restricts users from accessing their personal files or system and demands a rAnswerom to regain access to them. Depending on the severity of the attack rAnsweromware is categorised into three types, they are:
- Screen lockers
- Encrypting rAnsweromware
Q18) What is Cryptojacking?
Answer: Malicious crypto mining or Cryptojacking is a type of online threat which uses the machine resources to mine forms of digital money known as cryptocurrency. This process can be carried out on a mobile device or on a computer.
Q19) How to protect yourself from getting hacked?
Answer: There are many ways to protect your personal computer from getting hacked, some of the important ones are listed below:
- Try to update your OS frequently for security updates to stay protected from hackers.
- Format all the devices which you plan to sell as there is a chance of information getting into other hands.
- Secure your wifi with a password and do not let it be open to others.
- Choose your security Answerwers creatively.
- Choose a smart way of emailing as the phishing campaigns are still live.
- Keep your sensitive information away from the cloud.
Q20) What is Adware?
Answer: Adware is a type of unwanted software created to show advertisements automatically onto your desktop or mobile screens. These appear mostly while using a web browser on a computer system or a mobile.
Q21) What is Data Breach?
Answer: Data breach comes under the process of a Cyberattack that enables cyber criminals to get unauthorised entry to a computer or a network. This allows them to steal private, confidential, sensitive and financial data of customers or existing users.
Most common attacks followed by cybercriminals are:
- Misconfigured or Broken access controls.
Q22) What is MIB?
Answer: Management Information Base(MIB) is a group of network objects which are manageable. These objects are a logical form of Physical networking components which are Simple Network Management Protocol(SNMP) Enabled. MIB’s store information about software versions, available storage disk space, IP address or port number.
Q23) What are different types of password cracking techniques?
Answer: There are mainly five types of password cracking techniques, they are:
- Hybrid attack
- Rainbow table attack
- Brute Force attack
- Syllable attack
- Rule attack
Q24) What are the different types of spoofing?
Answer: Different types of Spoofing attacks are:
- IP Spoofing Attack.
- DNS Spoofing Attack.
- Media Access Control (MAC)
- ARP Spoofing Attack.
Q25) What is Cowpatty?
Answer: Cowpatty is reliant on C-language which is used to run a brute-force dictionary attack against protected wifi protocols such as WPA-PSK and audit pre-shared WPA keys.
Q26) What are the best programming languages for Hacking?
Answer: Best programming languages useful for ethical hacking are:
- C- language
Q27) What is a Script kiddie?
Answer: A script kiddie is someone who lacks basic skills of programming knowledge and makes use of a simple software to perform an attack on a computer.
Q28) What is XSS or Cross Site Scripting?
Q29) What are an SSL session and SSL connection?
Answer: Secured Socket Layer(SSL) is a peer to peer communication system in which each connection is related to one SSL session. Whereas, an SSL session is defined as a link between client and server basically created by the handshake protocol.
Q30) List some components used in SSL?
Answer: SSL is used for providing secure connection between server and a browser. Here are some of the components used in SSL:
- Change Cipher Spec
- Handshake protocol
- SSL record protocol
- Encryption Algorithms.
Q31) Define Virus.
Answer: It is a malicious program which can copying itself and cause some destruction to the user, such as corrupting the system or destroying data.
Q32) What is meant by Malware?
Answer: All form of viruses are referred with a generic term Malware which is malicious which executes without proper consent of the user or administrator.
Q33) What is an Adware?
Answer: Adware is type of malware which will load and display some online or offline Ads in your computer system.
Q34) Define Spyware.
Answer: Spyware is a type of malware which will be used to spy an individual or an organization by the way of accessing the whole system, specific files from file system, camera, voice or keylogging.
Q35) Define Worms.
Answer: A worm is a self-duplicating malware that keeps on replicating inside the system as well as in a network.
Q36) What is meant by Vulnerability?
Answer: A vulnerability is a hole or threat in a system or software which allows a hacker to exploit and steal information or affecting business continuity.
Q37) Define Exploit.
Answer: The act of taking advantage of the vulnerability and successfully hacking or compromising a vulnerable system or network and gaining its access or files.
Q38) What is a Threat?
Answer: A threat is a potential risk or danger that can exploit a vulnerability existing in the system or network.
Q39) Define Attack.
Answer: Attack is the act of scanning the vulnerability and exploiting it to gain access to the target system/software/file.
Q40) What is meant by Back door?
Answer: Back door is the act of creating and maintaining unauthorized access to the compromised systems.
Q41) What is a Bot?
Answer: A bot is a script/program/software created to attack faster than humans.
Q42) What is meant by Botnet?
Answer: A botnet is a network of Bots (compromised targets of a hacker) which will be used as a source for Dos or DDos attacks.
Q43) Define Brute force attack.
Answer: A brute force attack is normally used to guess username or password by the way of trying all the possible combinations of alphabets, numbers and special characters.
Q44) Define Buffer Overflow attack.
Answer: Buffer Overflow is an error which is occurred when the size of data injected to the buffer is greater than the allocated buffer size.
Q45) Who is a Cracker?
Answer: A cracker is a hacker who modifies the software to gain access to some or all of the features which are available in different paid/licensed versions leading to software piracy.
Q46) What is meant by Denial of service attack (DoS)?
Answer: This attack is an offensive attempt to make a server or a network device to deny its service (say HTTP/HTTPS) to the legitimate users, by flooding a huge wave of traffic to it.
Q47) What is meant by Distributed denial of service attack (DDoS)?
Answer: DDoS attack is the Distributed form of DoS performed by using Botnets or Trojans from different regions.
Q48) What is a Firewall?
Answer: Firewall is a software program or a hardware device that basically acts as a filter to configure rules which allows or denies the desired traffic by the way of protecting the organizations perimeter from outside attacks.
Q49) What is meant by Social engineering?
Answer: Social engineering is the practice of tricking someone with the determination of gaining personal and sensitive information, like usernames and passwords or credit card details.
Q50) What is a Spam?
Answer: A Spam is an unintended information or Ads or marketing messages which are sent as email or SMS to a large number of users without their consent.
Q51) What is meant by Spoofing?
Answer: Spoofing is the process of imitating a trusted/authorized host or a device by an unauthorized attacker to send or receive from or to the target systems.
Q52) What is meant by SQL Injection?
Answer: SQL injection is a technique or attack which uses malicious inputs to bypass a query which can be username or password or any input which uses SQL statements to query the database.
Q53) Define Cross-site Scripting.
Answer: Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of web applications vulnerability which makes the attackers to inject client-side script into a compromised web site viewed by the users.
Q54) Define Trojan.
Answer: A Trojan, or Trojan Horse is malware injected or modified inside a legitimate program or software which are available in unauthorized internet sources.
Q55) What is a Backdoor Trojan?
Answer: These Trojans create backdoor on a computer. This makes an attacker to gain access the computer and operate it remotely. The data can be uploaded from the target host to any public sites or sold in black markets. Or more malware can be uploaded to your device.
Q56) What is meant by Fake AV Trojan?
Answer: These Trojans behave like an antivirus software and request users to pay money to detect and remove viruses which may be real or fake.
Q57) What is a Game-thief Trojan?
Answer: The target of these Trojans may be online gamers. These Trojans steal the account information and payment card information of the fellow gamers.
Q58) Define Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Trojans.
Answer: This Trojan executes DDoS attacks. The aim is to bring down a network or system or a service by flooding it with large amount of traffic which cannot be handled by the target from different Trojan sources.
Q59) What is a Remote Access Trojan?
Answer: These type of Trojans enables the attacker to gain elevated access to the compromised targets to control it remotely and to spy using it.
Q60) What is an Infostealer Trojan?
Answer: These Trojans are used to steal personal and valuable information from the compromised hosts.
Q61) What is a Ransom Trojan?
Answer: This Trojan is designed in such a way that it lock or encrypts important or all the files available in the file system and demands for a ransom of money to unlock or decrypt it.
Q62) What is a Mailfinder Trojan?
Answer: This Trojan finds and steals the emails stored anywhere in your computer even through the keyloggers. They are intended to sell those email ids to digital marketers or spammers.
Q63) What is a Downloader Trojan?
Answer: This type of Trojans target compromised or infected computers to download and install a new malware or it updates of the already available malwares and adwares with their newer versions.
Q64) What is meant by scanning?
Answer: Scanning is the process of identifying IPs of Hosts in the network, it’s corresponding open tcp/udp ports, protocol version, OS details etc., using some tools.
Q65) What are the types of Scanning?
- Network Scanning
- Port Scanning
- Vulnerability Scanning
Q66) List any tools used for hacking?
- Burp Suit
Q67) List common DoS Attacks?
- SYN Flooding
- ICMP Flooding
- Buffer Overflow
- Smurf Attack
Q68) What are the different types of spoofing attacks?
- ARP Spoofing
- IP Spoofing
- DNS Spoofing
Q69) What is a cryptominer?
Answer: Cryptominer is a malware which mines crypto currency. It is a malware which is created to use or steal a computer’s hardware resources of the target or infected system for cryptocurrency mining without any prior knowledge of the user.
Q70) Types of Hackers?
Answer: White hat, Black hat, Grey hat
Q71) Differnece Between Vulnerability and Exploit?
Answer: Vulnerability is the weakness in the system, Exploit is successful attack using the vulnerbality
Q72) What is Encryption?
Answer: Process of converting human readable content to unreadable junk values using a special keys
Q73) What is Encoding?
Answer: Process of converting human readable content to unreadable junk values using a special algorithim
Q74) What are the steps in hacking?
- Information gathering
- Covering Tracks
Q75) What is DOS attack?
Answer: This attack is used to make the network/system resource not available to the service provider or user
Q76) What is spoofing?
Answer: Spoofing is nothing but pretending to be a system within a network of systems
Q77) What is sniffing?
Answer: Sniffing a process of monitoring the network traffic without the knowledge of the autual user
Q78) What is the difference between encryption and hashing?
Encryption is reversible
Hashing is irreversible
Encryption ensures confidentiality
Hashing ensures Integrity
Q79) What is CIA Triangle?
- Confidentiality : Keeping the information secret.
- Integrity : Keeping the information unaltered.
- Availability : Information is available to the authorised parties at all times
Q80) What is the difference between VA and PT?
Vulnerability Assessment is an approach used to find flaws in an application/network
It is the practice of finding exploitable vulnerabilities like a real attacker will do
Q81) What is SQL injection and its types?
- Blind SQL injection
- Time-based SQL injection
- Error-based SQL injection
- ARP Spoofing Attack.
- DNS Spoofing Attack.
- IP Spoofing Attack.
Q82) What is PGP?
Answer: PGP is pretty good privacy used for email security
Q83) What is port 20, 21 used for?
Answer: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Q84) What is STRIDE?
Answer: Spoofing, Tampering, Repudation, Information Disclosure, Denial of Service, Elevation of Privilege.